In the article titled "Effects of nickel and temperature on the ground beetle", authors Agnieszka J. Bednarska and Ryszard Laskowski set out to address the effects of nickel on the ground beetle. They start the article with a notion that is very common throughout the science world. The idea that all living things are exposed to outsides inhibitors which can greatly impact their ability to survive and to function. These inhibitors can include a lack of available nourishment, moisture, and also temperatures which can cripple even the most thriving outside environment.
"Nickel (Ni) occurring element, but anthropogenic sources are responsible for its elevated concentrations in the environment. Since industrialization, large amounts of Ni have been released to the environment, especially from burning fossil fuels," Adding that, "Nickel is usually emitted from smelters as very fine dust particles which remain in the atmosphere for a long time and can be transported to long distances. In the vicinity of smelters, nickel concentrations in soil and plants may exceed its natural content 100 times (Eisler 1998; Kabata-Pendias 2000) or even more, since in smelter-contaminated soils concentrations as high as 22,000 mg kg -1 may occur (Everhart et. al 2006)," (Bednarska, 2008, p. 189). The authors show in this citation, as well as others that follow, which they themselves are no different when it comes to researching topics and providing the necessary credit to those who have formulated the works which they review.
As the authors describe, the continued increase in the production of nickel had made the study of the environmental hazards of this metal even more important to be aware of. They go on to write that,
"Toxic effects of Ni were studied in soil invertebrates such as earthworms (Scott-Fordsmand et al. 1998; Lock and Jansen 2002) and springtails (Scott-Fordsmand et al. 1999), where test organisms were exposed to increasing concentrations of the metal under constant ambient conditions in laboratory," Going on to write that, "However, in the field natural stressing factors are likely to modify responses of animals to chemical exposure through their influence on a variety of physiological processes. For example, high temperature, by increasing metabolic rates, can increase consumption and assimilation of toxicants contained in food and, thus, may lead to increased intoxication of exposed animals. On the other hand, the elevated metabolic rate at high temperatures may help to increase rates of detoxification and elimination of toxins from an organism," (Bednarska, 2008, p. 190).
Therefore, they move on to discuss the experiment at hand. That is, the direct impact whatever it may be on the ground beetle when it is exposed to nickel. Or as the writers describe the insect in its Latin name, P. oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Bednarska & Laskowski describe the beetle as,
"Carabid beetles are for many reasons particularly interesting for ecotoxicology: being important pest-control species they need special attention in