As such, by employing strategies that address each phase in a specific way the reader is able to cultivate a critical skill of self-conscious reading. Also, a reader is better able to understand that a variety of reading techniques are required in order to understand and actively engage with a text.
This paper will critically review a selection of reading strategies to demonstrate their benefits to teaching and learning of reading non-fictional texts. Firstly, before-reading will be discussed and reference made to the technique of using an Anticipation Guide. Secondly, during-reading will be presented with an example of the Anolighting Text method. Next, after-reading will be reviewed with reference to Organizational methods. Following, the implications of presented reading strategies for teaching practice will be outlined, and recommendations made for implication within the classroom. Finally, a conclusion shall synthesize the main points of the paper to illustrate the critical benefit of reading strategies for student understanding and conceptualization of non-fictional texts.
The before-reading phase is where the reader determines within themselves the purpose of reading the text, and develops a tentative plan as to how to approach the reading endeavor (Beers, 2000). It is suggested that before a reader begins on a text that they take the time to survey the material so as to get an overall 'feel' for the material, before attempting to tackle link the details (Fairbrain, 2000). The first step suggested by Fairbrain is to understand the title of the article or text to be read. This requires careful reading to identify the key words used. For example "definition", "effect", "review", "comparison" or "analysis" (Duffy et al., 1987). A definition will aim to differentiate a concept/process from other members of the class by listing the term's distinguishing characteristics. An effect will seek to identify a cause that directly leads to a consequence (effect) that requires tracing probable or known effects of a certain cause or examining one or more effects and discussing the reasonable or known cause(s). A review will present a series of research that discusses the findings and conclusions of previous studies by aggregating data to present the overall scope of the topic to date. Whereas a comparison will seek to detail how X differs and shares similarities with Y. An analytic paper will aim to break down a concept/process into it component parts so as to determine the actual parts that exist, their functions, structure and implications. Analysis involves breaking something down into its components and discovering the parts that make up the whole.
However, it is clear that this step will only occur when the reader has a good grasp on the language of critical reading. As such, those readers who are new to a discipline could be expected to have difficulty with the above terms with regard to their academic definition. Further, students of low self-efficacy may find themselves confronted by academic terminology and 'jingoism' to