The origin of Anti Trust Law lies in the reaction to public outcry over the corporate monopolies that dominated US manufacturing and mining. The trusts formed by mergers and mutual understandings used to control prices according to their profit needs. This practice has come to an end by the enacting and executing this act. In the 20th century President Theodore Roosevelt and his successor President William Howard Taft, responded to public criticism over the rapid merger of industries by pursuing more vigorous legal action, and steady prosecution. This brought the downfall of monopoly in the manufacturing resulting in price fall. The Clayton law in 1914 declared price discrimination, tying and exclusive-dealing contracts, corporate mergers and interlocking directorates as illegal but not criminal. The Robinson-Patman Act, passed by US congress in 1936 explicitly forbade forms of price discrimination, in order to protect small producers from extinction due to competition. From 1937 to 1940 Roosevelt's effort to cope with economic decline brought federal antitrust enforcement back. After that Congress added its last piece of important legislation in 1950 with the Celler-Kefauver anti merger act. This made the businesses unable to target the assets of the rivals also in addition to previous forbidding of anti competitive stock purchases. A loop hole was plugged.
The Anti Trust Legislation was enacted by the federal and various state governments to regulate trade and commerce by preventing unlawful restraints, with the primary goal of safeguarding public welfare by ensuring that consumer demands will be met by the manufacture and sale of goods at reasonable prices…
These laws are designed to enhance fairly distributed competition between firms, while encouraging production and supply of quality products and services at affordable prices. In other words, the laws account for public welfare by ensuring that the public is not exploited.
The 18th and the 19th century American women faced all manners of oppression. They were expected to stay at home to nurture children and take care of homes. As such, they were not expected to be heard, but to be seen. This implied that men dominated over them in all matters in society.
ntended to create a new capability in terms of providing new productive capacity, new technology, a new product, or entry into a new market.1 The term "joint venture" can be applied to a wide range of collaborative activity. The Department of Justice, in its Guidelines for International Operations, has defined a joint venture as "essentially any collaborative effort among firms, short of a merger, with respect to R&D, production, distribution and/or the marketing of products or services."2 In the health care industry, agreements between hospitals and physicians to provide certain hospital-based services, such as anesthesiology, radiology, and pathology could be viewed as joint ventures.
Indirect or delegated legislation means rules or laws laid down by a body or person to whom the legislature has delegated power to make such rules, e.g. regulations laid down by a minister under power given him by an Act of Parliament. The Parliament is the supreme legislative body, hence, it can enact any law it chooses; and its enactments are absolutely binding on all.
Many financial services companies are realizing the need to expand the range of risk management and governance to incorporate information technology. This realization is increasing in the wake of increasing theft occurrences and other information security violation, and also an increase of legislation intended to control financial markets.
Companies may resort to mergers and acquisitions because they provide an inorganic route to expansion. Any such transaction makes good strategic sense for at least one of the companies involved in the deal. However there is nothing to
By bundling their internet explorer with the operating system, Microsoft gained victory in the browser sector as every operating system had internet explorer software (Evans, 2002). Besides, Microsoft license agreement with
It also includes the protection of the rights of the underrepresented groups such as women. It aims at fostering diversity and compensating for the ways in which such underrepresented groups have historically been excluded through programs that