Education, scholarship, and art and architecture were essential aspects of the Byzantine culture, and Byzantine wealth supported the learning and scholarship of its people.
The migration and raids of the Vikings (Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes) had an important role in the history of both the Western and Eastern Europe as it altered the political map during the period. The name Vikings or the Northmen was applied to all Scandinavians in the eighth century and they were also called the Verangians. One of the major factors that contributed to the migration and explorations of the Vikings was their ships which carried the horses and other trade materials. Significantly, they achieved an Eastern expansion in the eighth century and their expansion started with the wars among the East Kiev and East Slavs. Similarly, it also celebrated a Western expansion in England and the other regions. Agriculture and trade, learning and literature, art and architecture etc played central activities in the expansion of the Vikings.