The abstract provides a clear idea about two important factors whether the research addressed the question of interest and whether it studied individuals or situations are relevant. Aside from giving information about the purpose of the study, it also includes who was included in the study as well as an overview of the findings and the implications of the findings to practice.
The findings confirm that Eastern and Western cultures emphasize different influence styles. This is a confirmation of a previous research finding. The findings also indicate that life stage is as important as culture, and possibly more important than culture, in explaining the ethical perceptions of upward influence behavior. This involves the new discoveries or concepts from the research.
The abstract is found on the first page of the research. It has the findings which provide the summary of the key components of the research. The abstract provides a short summary of the study. It includes the aim of the study, outline of the methodology and the main findings. The purpose of the abstract is to allow the readers to decide if the study is of interest to them
The introduction section of the research paper describes the gap in knowledge that is addressed by the research study. In this section of the report, the researcher explains why the research was needed, why the study was carried out in the manner that it was and what the researcher is specifically asking or predicting.
As the business world evolves from a nation-state focus to a global focus, managers who are proficient at understanding cultural differences should be more effective in exercising influence in culturally mixed situations. Research on how culture affects individuals' choices of upward influence strategies has been limited.
This study provides a first step in the investigation of the interaction of age and culture on the upward influence ethics of managers. The primary goal of this study is to ascertain the interrelationship between life stage (age) and culture on the influence strategies employed by managers in order to identify compatibilities (or incompatibilities) in influence styles among age-culture groups.
Review of related Literature (Beasley, 2003)
This is a focused summary of what has already been published regarding the question or problem for which there is a gap in knowledge. The literature of the research article gives the readers' a picture of what is already known or has already been studied in relation to the problem and identifies where the gaps in knowledge may be.
The literature review does not necessarily only include published research studies. It also may include published reports about issues related to practice or a description of a theory. A theory is a written description of how several factors may relate to and affect one each other. The factors described in a theory are usually abstract: that cannot be readily observed and immediately defined and recognized by everyone.
The research report discusses a theory in its introduction section, the study tests and further explains the relationships proposed in that theory. The meta-category perspective is used in the research report. It is expected that the study will be based on this, and that is to examine some aspect of life events and perceptions affect the variables in the research.