In contrast or in congruence, Nathanson (2007) opined that authoritative knowledge in principle, is essential to the definition and analysis of dangers to the public's health and to the deployment of an effective response. "How and by whom this knowledge is framed, to whom it is addressed, and its relative acceptability have shifted with time and circumstance," (82).
Stakeholders include the government, private healthcare providers such as hospitals, health plans, office-based clinicians, industry groups or the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device manufacturers and marketers, professional associations, industry and trade associations, advocacy groups, and consumers (Donaldson and Gerard, 1993).
In the policy process, UK health policy encompass knowledge and effects on the networks between national government systems, arm's length bodies, the NHS, patient groups and charities, as well as information and processes in the Demand-side reform, Supply side reform, Transactional reform, Regulation or the Healthcare Commission, NICE, Therapy knowledge of gastroenterology, dermatology, cardiovascular medicine, anti-infective, sleep medicine, pain management, palliative care, oncology and neurology, identifying and utilising opportunities arising from non-medical prescribing, effective collaboration with patient groups, medical societies and Royal Colleges, managing national and regional guideline programmes producing timely responses and positive outcomes, knowledge of controlled drugs legislation, implications for commercial teams and preparation of submissions for Home Office consultations, knowledge of the NHS changing environment and incorporation into business plans and strategic marketing,
Parliamentary lobbying - understanding the process, networking and influencing, submissions to Government organisations including the Home Office and Health Select Committee (Donaldson and Gerard, 1993).
A policy is a deliberate plan of action that guide decision-makers in order to achieve rational outcomes that apply to governments, the private sector, organisations and groups as well as individuals (Jenkins, 1978). Policy could also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, such as the identification of different alternative programs or spending priorities, or choosing among a list on the basis of the impact or result they will have. These can be political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals and objectives (Birkland, 2001).
Birkland (1995) have pointed out that while "the study of politics has a long history, the systematic study of public policy, on the other hand, can be said to be a twentieth century creation. It dates, according to Daniel McCool, to 1922, when political scientist Charles Merriam sought to connect the theory and practices of politics to understanding the actual activities of government, that is public policy," (p.4).
In most instances, according to Bridgman and Davis (2004), the eight step policy cycle includes:
1. Issue identification - In this process, emerging problems are identified, although ...
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“Health Policy Delivery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/289913-health-policy-delivery.
In the recent days, consumers often want to have control and some form of influence over their health and the health care services. This is important for the patients who in some way find it difficult to seek their services in different “businesses” or find it harder to give out their opinion so that it can be considered by the NHS staff.
Thus, public health includes performance in relation to the series of policies pertaining to vaccination, nourishment, tobacco, alcohol and drugs among other aspects. Apart from the mentioned factors, public health policy is also known to encompass pregnancy, children health and medical recovery.
Though it is normal to have both public and private players in the field, what is startling about America is the dominance of private players. According to records (as cited in Chua, 2006), in the year 2003, only 15 percent Americans had public insurance coverage through programmes like Medicaid.
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American citizens are basically categorized into several groups with regard to provision of health services. That is it captures all citizens regardless of their economic state whether employed or not, a civilian or a military veteran and also private sectors.
The patient care plan should reflect a strategy that best congregates the patient's needs within time limitations and limited resources. The goal of efficiency inflicts shorter hospital stays for patients, reformation of hospitals for economic survival, and efforts to enumerate nursing care costs (Sinclair Vaughn 1988).
This has led the American health industry into a deep crisis. If the health industry has to avert a fall then some kind of reforms must be taken up at the earliest. Actually the fast and continuous increase in the insurance premium has made it very difficult for many to take up coverage and many are stressed with the financial burden.
Case-study: The governor of a poor Southern state has just announced her candidacy for the president of the United States. One of her top platforms that likely led to her candidacy is her commitment to
Included in the targeted population are; adults, children, people released from prison to mention just but a few. The second component focused on issues faced by the administrators’ mental health in delivering
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