4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots-namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy efforts to thwart terrorism
5. Describe anarchist and socialist movements of the 19th Century. Which activists within those movements were most pivotal in giving us terrorism as we know it today Also, in your own opinion, how should modern America deal with fomenters of political violence when they do so while in exile through writing and speaking Should America "go after" such people given the observation from history that other exiled thinkers/revolutionaries have had great influence with violent and long-standing consequences
Terrorism comes from the Latin word for "terror" or "fear", but an objective and universally accepted definition of the word is difficult up to the present moment for the simple reason that what may be seen as frightening or terrifying by the victims of terrorist acts may be seen, from the side of the terrorists and those who support them, as acts of daring, courage, and heroism. This issue of three different perceptions of an act - the terrorist, the victim, and the public - that leads to different understandings and definitions of the act is part of our common experience (Schmid, 1997). For example, a triathlete may see his/her punishing dietary and exercise regimens as forms of discipline to attain success and glory, but a non-triathlete would simply view it as pointless vain masochism.
Definitions range from the simple: "the use or threatened use of force designed to bring about political change" (Jenkins, 1985); to the concise: "policy intended to strike with terror those against whom it is adopted; the employment of methods of intimidation" (OED, 2002); and the complex: as in the Patriot Act definition (U.S. Congress, 2001, Sec. 808). The most balanced among the wide range of definitions is proposed by the FBI (1999): "Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The FBI definition includes the key elements that characterize terrorist acts (Schmid, 1983): (1) use of unlawful violence or force, (2) a political aim, and (3) the main targets are civilians.
The point against all other definitions is that these are too specific and contain too many details that clutter understanding (how violent acts are carried out, which systems are used, motives and intentions of perpetrators, etc.). It is unavoidable that in any society, some have grievances they want addressed by observing due processes to preserve social order. The terrorist disrespects the process and performs acts to intimidate society and the ruling power, thinking that the end justifies the means. This mentality is rooted in Machiavelli (1997) and, based on centuries of experience, leads to more intimidation, oppression, less freedom, and more violent