Today's dynamic environment requires leaders to be flexible enough to drive change in the organization.
The paper elaborates and critically discusses the different leadership approaches and theories. It critically analyzes the statement that "leaders are born not made" in the light of the views of different authors on various theories.
In the early twenty century, it was considered that the leaders are born and cannot be made. It was assumed that there must be three qualities in every leader and on the basis of these qualities the leaders can be judged. Personality, physicality and mentality were the elements that were found mandatory to be a leader. It was also thought that the organizations having an ability to recognize great leaders would touch the pinnacle of success (Horner 1997). According to this view, the leaders are born and these qualities cannot be developed. Without the natural capabilities and abilities no one could become a leader. These leadership qualities are the gift of nature that can be given to any one regardless of sex, nationality and origin.
Horner suggests that a number of researches have been carried out to distinguish the qualities of a leader but so far no great output has been achieved. The author says that there may be several situational and environmental factors that add up to a leader's effectiveness (1997). According to a famous Michigan and Ohio State leadership study in the context of an organization, consideration and initiation as two most important factors. The same was proved with the research carried out at other several colleges and universities. In the presence of this research, it can be said that leadership qualities are not necessarily inborn but it can also be grown in the employees (Horner 1997). Leadership is something keenly related to the behaviors that can be taught to the employees. The employees are not necessarily born with leadership qualities but these are the qualities that can rise up in the employees. If the employees are motivated and trained in the manner there is no reason why the maximum output is not achieved and they will surely be proved themselves as the great prospective leaders.
Some researchers have moved forward with their research to discover what leadership behaviours are and how the behaviours of leader can be distinguished from their subordinates. In the light of those behaviours the art of leadership could be taught. Such researches focus on both people oriented and task oriented actions of behaviour. (Horner 1997). This behaviour can be learned instead of considering that these are inborn factors.
There are several leadership theories that elaborate leadership behaviours, traits and qualities. These theories explain the different aspect of leadership and qualities of a good leader or weather these can only be the inborn qualities or they can be taught as well. The first theory is the great man theory that says that the "leaders are born and not made". According to the theory, the great leadership abilities are inherited and can not be taught to any one. Further only the great man can lead and the subordinates are made to obey these great men (Roberts 1994). The great leaders show up when there is a great need of them. The main idea of the Great man theory was the recognition of the great people as natural born leaders. The theory further says that the history has been formed by great leaders. Mostly the people of