Most f these masses said nothing, however, some vocally supported such persons as Charles Hodge, a Princeton theologian who preached that Darwinism was atheism.
John William Dawson and Arnold Guyot, two f the last reputable nineteenth-century creationists attempted to oblige science by interpreting the days f Genesis "as ages and by correlating them with successive epochs in the natural history f the world" (Ruse, 229). Dawson and Guyot cited several supernatural interventions, particularly in their theories f the first humans; however, they attempted to keep such paranormal citations to a minimum, thus focusing on a maximizing f operations f natural law.
Between 1910 and 1915, The Fundamentals was published to rejuvenate and reform Christianity throughout the world. These booklets were mass-produced, and, at the time, posed a bigger threat to orthodox faith than did evolution. According to Numbers, "Although one contributor [to The Fundamentals] identified evolution as the principal cause f disbelief in the Scriptures and another traced the roots f higher criticism to Darwin, the collection as a whole lacked the strident anti-evolution that would characterize the fundamentalist movement f the 1920s" (249).
William Jennings Bryan soon became the ideal spokesman for an anti-evolution crusade. He was politically involved and, although lost the bid for presidency three times, had a national reputation, vast prestige, and a strong following. Bryan often preached f the silliness f humans having a biological connection to apes. After the outbreak f World War I, Bryan began to trace the source f trouble to the influence f Darwinism. From the information printed in two published books, one by Vernon Kellogg and one by Benjamin Kidd, Bryan blamed the deterioration f Christianity and democracy on the support f theories f evolution. Each f the two books cited conversations among German officers revealing that Darwin's biology had played a major role in convincing the Germans to declare war. Bryan furthered his crusade by noting that beliefs in evolution were the main cause f students to lose faith in the Bible.
In class we learned that "creation science" has, indeed, not been proven as a science, thus should not be taught in schools. However, it is that same claim that was used by many creationists when referring to theories f evolution-- that it is not scientific. The crusade against evolution was given a significant boost in 1921 when British biologist William Bateson declared that scientists had not discovered "the actual mode and process f evolution" (Bateson, 56). Even though Bateson urged creationists not to misinterpret his statement as a rejection f evolution, they ignored him and accepted the statement as a minor triumph. Nonetheless, when it came down to a scientific debate, the creationists had only a handful f legitimate scientists-- including one or two physicians and a few teachers.
In 1925 came the famous Scopes trial, where a high school teacher, John Thomas