Biology Essays

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How the eye is suited for the purpose of converting visible light into neural activity?

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 12
Similarly, alteration in anatomy also causes defects like myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism. However, various methods are also included in this essay to overcome these eye problems.

Innate and Adaptive Immunity

3 pages (753 words) , Download 11
Innate and Adaptive Immunity We live in an environment where we are constantly exposed to foreign particles which include, dust, chemicals, bacteria and viruses. If our body did not have an apt mechanism to tackle the incoming stream of foreign antigens we would soon have become victims of various harmful diseases.

The Red Blood cells

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 5
Section A Calculation for RBC Length of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Width of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Depth of one smallest square = 1/10 mm Volume of one smallest square = 1/20 x 1/20 x 1/10 = 1/4000 mm3 Total number of RBCs counted = 1036 (5 squares, 4 corners + 1 center) No.


3 pages (753 words) , Download 4
The teosinte are also either rhizome-forming perennials or “annuals that reproduce every year from seed” (495). Corn or maize, however, has a rigid rachis called the cob and is made up of kernels (494). Although some scientists believe that teosinte is the ancestor of corn, many people do not because of the differences of the appearance of teosinte when compared with corn.

Designer babies

2 pages (502 words) , Download 4
The process of creating designer baby has often questioned because of its unstable moral platform. The processes involved are not natural. Genetic engineering of babies comes with some challenges. Some of its shortcomings are: - Division of the socioeconomic strata, Designer babies intensify the superficiality in the society, not a guaranteed process and it is not an ordinary course of life.

The Scientific Method Paper

3 pages (753 words) , Download 3
A standard process of questioning and analysis is followed to obtain data to test a hypothesis or educated guess. Scientists all around the world follow this same procedure to test questions about natural phenomenon.

Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field

3 pages (753 words) , Download 3
Name Instructor’s Name Course Date A Research Essay that Explores Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field The most obvious benefit of pesticides depends on how and where it is being used, for instance, for economic purposes.

'How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body'

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 3
Proteins usually perform multiple roles in the body, and exhibit a great level of diversity. Dietary proteins usually undergo dissembling into amino acids, which are the building blocks. The body only has the potential to absorb amino acids, explaining why the body embarks on the digestive process.

Darwin and Evolution

3 pages (753 words) , Download 3
Several theories have been ever since to understand the origin of man and concepts such as evolution and speciation. Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection even though slightly debatable provides a firm insight into what might had been the basis of our existence.

Gene Therapy

3 pages (753 words) , Download 3
The genes thus introduced exert their benefits by either compensating for the abnormal genes or by producing beneficial protein or by supplementing the abnormal gene (Hecht, n. p.). The first gene therapy clinical trial started in 1990 (Verma and Weitzman, n.

A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beat

2 pages (502 words) , Download 2
A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beats Daphnia magna (water flea) is a small freshwater crustacean existing in different environments such as in lakes, rivers, and streams. Daphnia is frequently used in a bioassay to investigate the effect of a chemical on the living organism.


10 pages (2510 words) , Download 2
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Identification of bacteria as a causative agents of diseases, epidemics, contaminated food and other sources of infection and illness is a process that has growing significance in the modern world. Bacteria are a causative agents for many diseases in humans and domestic animals that and can be a cause of significant health impact on the human population.

The use of antibiotics and the concerns of creating strains of microbial resistant organisms.

3 pages (753 words) , Download 2
Nevertheless, microbes which are resistant to the therapy of antibiotic drug and yet cause the disease expose the people to a lot of health problems. Diseases which can not often be treated by the antibiotics include but are not limited to gonorrhea, pneumonia, wound infections, septicemia and tuberculosis.

Each Illness is Caused by a Bacterium

3 pages (753 words) , Download 2
A 27-year old white female presented at the walking clinic of her local physician on August 15. On physical exam, the patient had a fever of 38.5C. She appeared fatigued, had tender joints, and complained of a headache, a stiff neck and a backache. The physician noticed a circular "rash" about 5 inches in diameter, with a bright red leading edge and a dim center in the form of a "bull’s eye".

Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis

14 pages (3514 words) , Download 2
Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis Name - Course Instructor University Date of Submission Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis TAQ 1: Write a short essay describing the role of genes and chromosomes in the transmission of human characteristics giving at least one example.


4 pages (1004 words) , Download 2
Gametogenesis is the formation of male and female gametes or sex cells. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the formation of male and female gametes, respectively, by the process of mitosis and meiosis. Gametes unite in the process of fertilization. The most important consequence of meiosis is that it produces an enormous amount of genetic variation through the production of different combinations of chromosomes.

Effects of Stress on the Immune System

7 pages (1757 words) , Download 2
Stress has been found to have both beneficial as well as deleterious effects on the human body depending on the nature and duration of the stressor. In most cases, however, the harmful effects outweigh the benefits of stress on the immune system which is especially the case in chronic stressful conditions.

respiratory physiology

3 pages (753 words) , Download 2
Vital capacity of male and female was compared and the effect of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the inspired air along with the effect of hyperventilation on breath holding limit was also measured. Carbon dioxide is one of those factors whose presence in the inspired air directly relates to the respiratory rate and tidal volume.

Human and Animal Interrelationships

3 pages (753 words) , Download 2
The nature and scope of the relationship have, however, been differing depending on the type of animal and the benefits an animal has to humans. This relationship has been conceptualized in terms of bringing animals into the human realm. Conventionally, the relationships between humans and animals that have been regarded as domestic are very variable in respect to control of specific animals such as honey-bees, elephants, cats, horses, and cattle among others (Marchello 11).

How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 2
Disassembly of proteins is also called as proteolysis. First of all, proteins in our food are broken down into smaller units called as peptide chains. Many digestive enzymes include pepsin, trypsin, elastase and chymotrypsin. These peptides are further converted into amino acids by various proteolytic enzymes.

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical 1 Antibiotics and Agar Diffusion)

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 2
This practical involves three experiments which were carried out to quantitatively analyze and measure antibiotic susceptibility of various microorganisms. The first experiment investigates the effects of variables such as agar depth, presences of salt and inoculums size on the size of inhibition zones.

Biology - Infectious Diseases

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 2
For example, coughing, high body temperature, pimples, scabs or stomach upsets. Our body has a natural defense mechanism known as the immune system which strives to get rid of these infections. The immune system deals in two ways with the foreign particles; through innate and adaptive immunity.


5 pages (1255 words) , Download 2
There are many ways in which protein concentrations in substances, particularly solutions, can be determined. The most common approach is the application of a regression analysis model to develop a relationship between protein concentration in a solution and absorbance rate that can be experimentally determined.

Physiology and metabolism, cardiovascular system, MacMan computer simuklation

19 pages (4769 words) , Download 2
Setting the venous resistance at low values would reduce the ventricular function together with the heart rate. This means that the increasing venous resistance has minimum influence on the blood pressure. Setting the venous resistance at high values may alter the blood pressure.

The Increasing Incidence of Cancer in Human Beings

21 pages (5271 words) , Download 1
Cancer is a disease wherein the body’s own cells undergo uncontrolled multiplication and growth that leads to very unhealthy states leading to death. Cancer cells possess four characteristic properties which distinguish them from normal cells which are uncontrolled proliferation (growth), altered differentiation and loss of function, invasiveness and metastasis.

The Effect of Light Intensity on the Abundance of White Clover

18 pages (4518 words) , Download 1
The paper will observe the prevalence of plots that had low intensity of both light and clover, in many of these plots no clover was present. These plots differed visually from other plots, as in these plots the soil was exposed and there was no vegetation of any species. In addition, there was animal faecal matter present.

Thesis proposal about antibiotic resistance pathogens in fomities

8 pages (2008 words) , Download 1
In modern time the extensive use of antibiotics in treatment of bacterial infections has led to some organisms developing resistance to some antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance can be defined as a form of drug resistance in which the targeted microorganisms can resist exposure to the same drug (Hawkey, 3) Spontaneous genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to microbial drug.

Energy Medicine as the Medicine of Future

17 pages (4267 words) , Download 1
1 Discussion 1.1 Introduction Energy medicine, also known as energy healing is founded on the notion that it is possible for the healer to direct the rejuvenating energy into the patient through various processes like touching, applying pressure or even distant rejuvenation (where the healer is physically absent and located differently from his/her patient) (Daulby and Mathison, 1996, 89).

Origin and Evolution of Birds Paper

11 pages (2761 words) , Download 1
It is evidently clear from the discussion that birds are animals that evolved millions of years ago due to a number of factors in order to resemble the modern day birds. As more research is put forth on the origin and the evolution of birds, many results seems to be emanating day by day as new discoveries are made.

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

10 pages (2510 words) , Download 1
There is growing acceptance to multiple sclerosis not being a unified disease entity, but instead a complex mix of several clinical syndromes that have varied underlying neuropathology and dissimilar therapeutic response to the currently available therapeutics.

Designer babies should not be legalized

11 pages (2761 words) , Download 1
Designer babies should not be legalized In the recent years, over the news media, newspapers, scientific journals, internet and research papers, many became astonished on hearing the term ‘designer babies.’ Designer babies becomes majorly based on the concept of one selecting traits that one wishes for his or her child to have.

Entry Strategies of the foreign firms in the Indian Android Smart Phone Market

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....................................................................2 Background information......................................................................2 Literature review...........................................................................

Primary Analysis of Candidate Cancer Meiosis (CM) Genes

20 pages (5020 words) , Download 1
Meiosis and Cancer 17 4. Cancer Testis Antigens and Meiosis, and their Role in Tumorigenesis 19 5. Screening of Cancer Testis Antigens 22 5.1. SEREX (Serological Analysis of Recombinant cDNA Expression Cloning) 22 5.2. T-Cell Epitope Cloning 23 5.3. Differential Gene Expression Analysis 23 6.

Biodiversity and Ethno botanist Exploitation by Pharmaceutical Companies

9 pages (2259 words) , Download 1
According to the paper traditional herbalists and ethnobotanists have been in existence in various society since time immemorial. Pharmaceutical companies commonly tap into the wealth of knowledge that ethnobotanists and traditional herbalists have without compensating them adequately, only using this information to enrich themselves with gross disregard to property rights and common good.

Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt

3 pages (753 words) , Download 1
Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt Introduction: This investigation is facilitated by the observation of the lack of grass growth approximately three inches from the driveway where salt is customarily spread during the winter months. In addition to the bald patches near the driveway, slow growth is noticed in the patches of lawn up to a foot away from the driveway.

Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)

2 pages (502 words) , Download 1
Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish) Phylogeny or the evolutionary relationships of Turritopsis nutricula is a subject that requires further research (Schuchert 315-369). The basic scientific classification is as follows: Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Cnidaria

Energy, Metabolism and Cells

3 pages (753 words) , Download 1
If, however, there is a lack of oxygen in the organism, it resorts to fermentation in order to produce ATP, along with either ethanol or lactic acid. All throughout the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration enzymes are utilized. Enzymes catalyze reactions in different ways, and enzyme-substrate complexes are formed through a three-step mechanism.

Osmosis Lab Report

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 1
Osmosis and diffusion are the very essential at both the organ and cellular levels. Osmosis is the movement of the solvent molecules from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration through a semi permeable membrane.

The Anatomy of Human Digestive System

11 pages (2761 words) , Download 1
The Anatomy of Human Digestive System Introduction Digestion is the process wherein food is mechanically and chemically breaks down into smaller pieces small enough to be utilized and absorb by the body. The human digestive system beginsfrom the mouth, passed through the esophagus, stomach, and the intestinesup to the anus for elimination.

The Hygiene Hypothesis

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 1
Name: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Course: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Institution: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Tutor: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX @2010 The concept of “The hygiene hypothesis” was first mentioned by David Strachan and it states that inadequate exposure of young children to pathogenic microorganisms (e.g.

How Eukaryote Cells Came into Life

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Flow of knowledge, energy and matter is required for their maintenance. Living systems can be unicellular or multi-cellular. As the name suggests, multi-cellular organisms are those made of more than one cell. There can be different kinds of cells, two of which are eukaryote and prokaryote cells.

The Earthquake in Haiti in 2010

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A disaster is one of the most unwanted occurrences in life for an individual for it may often result to great loss not only to properties a person possess but also it can take the life of anyone in a blink of an eye. It could either be natural or man-made, which can be equally damaging to life and property.

Impact of Menopause on Women Sexual Function

7 pages (1757 words) , Download 1
The menopausal stage continues until the death of the woman or rather the woman does not go back to the earlier stage thus it is permanent. The idea of stopping the menstruation means the woman’s body is undergoing hormonal changes that affect her sexuality.

Meiosis; Asexual and Sexual Reproduction; History of Genetics;

8 pages (2008 words) , Download 1
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Meiosis also known as reduction division is a type of cell division where the cells divide to produce cells containing half the number of chromosomes. This type of cell division constitutes a very important part of sexual reproduction and all eukaryotes reproducing sexually have meiosis as a part of cell division. However, the prokaryotes i.e. the bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis.

Sickle Cell Anemia

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 1
The term sickle cell comes from the sickle shape or the crescent type shape of the affected hemoglobin molecules. It is caused due to a change in just a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule out of a billion others present in the cells of the human body. It may seem like a minor change but the effect is disastrous.

Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 1
1. What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component. The physical examination for prostate cancer has two main components, namely Digital Rectal examination (DRE) and measuring blood levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Digital Rectal examination is undertaken as a part of annual examination to directly palpate the prostate and check for abnormal texture and presence of lumps.

Sickle Cell Disease

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 1
The diseased individuals inherit the genes from their affected parents and pass it on to their offspring. In sickle cell disease, abnormal haemoglobin S replaces the normal haemoglobin A due to alterations in the genes. The function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen and deliver it to the different organs and cells of the human body.

Genes and Environment Essay

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 1
Chemically genes comprise of the DNA or de-oxy-ribonucleic acid and RNA or he ribonucleic acid. These are called the genetic material of the cell and are made up of nitrogen base, a pentose sugar and the phosphate molecule. DNA is double helix structure while the RNA is a single helix structure in a normal cell.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 1
Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the group of pathogenic micro-organisms that cause life threatening diseases in human beings. The organism belongs to Kingdom of Bacteria (Procaryotae), phylum Firmicutes, and class bacilli. Streptococcus pneumoniae is classified under the Order of Lactobacillales, family Streptoccaceae and Genus Streptococcus.

The scientific origin of designer babies

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 1
Scholars are at war with themselves in regard to the political, religious and scientific debates sparked by designer babies. Zahedi and Larijani in their article “Medical Genetic Ethics: Islamic Views and Considerations in Iran” point out that Islam as much as other religion appreciates the benefits of technological and scientific advancements. Legal and health issues aside, what do scriptures and doctrines dictate?
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