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How the eye is suited for the purpose of converting visible light into neural activity?

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Similarly, alteration in anatomy also causes defects like myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism. However, various methods are also included in this essay to overcome these eye problems.

Innate and Adaptive Immunity

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity We live in an environment where we are constantly exposed to foreign particles which include, dust, chemicals, bacteria and viruses. If our body did not have an apt mechanism to tackle the incoming stream of foreign antigens we would soon have become victims of various harmful diseases.

The Red Blood cells

6 pages (1506 words), Download 5
Section A Calculation for RBC Length of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Width of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Depth of one smallest square = 1/10 mm Volume of one smallest square = 1/20 x 1/20 x 1/10 = 1/4000 mm3 Total number of RBCs counted = 1036 (5 squares, 4 corners + 1 center) No.

Designer babies

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The process of creating designer baby has often questioned because of its unstable moral platform. The processes involved are not natural. Genetic engineering of babies comes with some challenges. Some of its shortcomings are: - Division of the socioeconomic strata, Designer babies intensify the superficiality in the society, not a guaranteed process and it is not an ordinary course of life.

Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field

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Name Instructor’s Name Course Date A Research Essay that Explores Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field The most obvious benefit of pesticides depends on how and where it is being used, for instance, for economic purposes.

Corn

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The teosinte are also either rhizome-forming perennials or “annuals that reproduce every year from seed” (495). Corn or maize, however, has a rigid rachis called the cob and is made up of kernels (494). Although some scientists believe that teosinte is the ancestor of corn, many people do not because of the differences of the appearance of teosinte when compared with corn.

'How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body'

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Proteins usually perform multiple roles in the body, and exhibit a great level of diversity. Dietary proteins usually undergo dissembling into amino acids, which are the building blocks. The body only has the potential to absorb amino acids, explaining why the body embarks on the digestive process.

Gene Therapy

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The genes thus introduced exert their benefits by either compensating for the abnormal genes or by producing beneficial protein or by supplementing the abnormal gene (Hecht, n. p.). The first gene therapy clinical trial started in 1990 (Verma and Weitzman, n.

A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beat

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A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beats Daphnia magna (water flea) is a small freshwater crustacean existing in different environments such as in lakes, rivers, and streams. Daphnia is frequently used in a bioassay to investigate the effect of a chemical on the living organism.

“Gametogenesis"

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Gametogenesis is the formation of male and female gametes or sex cells. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the formation of male and female gametes, respectively, by the process of mitosis and meiosis. Gametes unite in the process of fertilization. The most important consequence of meiosis is that it produces an enormous amount of genetic variation through the production of different combinations of chromosomes.

The Scientific Method Paper

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A standard process of questioning and analysis is followed to obtain data to test a hypothesis or educated guess. Scientists all around the world follow this same procedure to test questions about natural phenomenon.

The use of antibiotics and the concerns of creating strains of microbial resistant organisms.

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Nevertheless, microbes which are resistant to the therapy of antibiotic drug and yet cause the disease expose the people to a lot of health problems. Diseases which can not often be treated by the antibiotics include but are not limited to gonorrhea, pneumonia, wound infections, septicemia and tuberculosis.

Antibiotics Assess the Long-Term Effects of the Over-Use of Antibiotics on Pathogen Resistance

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The 20th century can be described as a period of greatest discoveries. One of those discoveries has been on antibiotics. These drugs have been used to control disease-causing organism. The antibiotics are typically used to contain bacteria infection in human beings and other domestic animals (Engelkirk et al., 2011).

Human and Animal Interrelationships

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The nature and scope of the relationship have, however, been differing depending on the type of animal and the benefits an animal has to humans. This relationship has been conceptualized in terms of bringing animals into the human realm. Conventionally, the relationships between humans and animals that have been regarded as domestic are very variable in respect to control of specific animals such as honey-bees, elephants, cats, horses, and cattle among others (Marchello 11).

How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body

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Disassembly of proteins is also called as proteolysis. First of all, proteins in our food are broken down into smaller units called as peptide chains. Many digestive enzymes include pepsin, trypsin, elastase and chymotrypsin. These peptides are further converted into amino acids by various proteolytic enzymes.

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical 1 Antibiotics and Agar Diffusion)

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This practical involves three experiments which were carried out to quantitatively analyze and measure antibiotic susceptibility of various microorganisms. The first experiment investigates the effects of variables such as agar depth, presences of salt and inoculums size on the size of inhibition zones.

Darwin and Evolution

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Several theories have been ever since to understand the origin of man and concepts such as evolution and speciation. Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection even though slightly debatable provides a firm insight into what might had been the basis of our existence.

Energy, Metabolism and Cells

3 pages (753 words), Download 1
If, however, there is a lack of oxygen in the organism, it resorts to fermentation in order to produce ATP, along with either ethanol or lactic acid. All throughout the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration enzymes are utilized. Enzymes catalyze reactions in different ways, and enzyme-substrate complexes are formed through a three-step mechanism.

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

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There is growing acceptance to multiple sclerosis not being a unified disease entity, but instead a complex mix of several clinical syndromes that have varied underlying neuropathology and dissimilar therapeutic response to the currently available therapeutics.

Thesis proposal about antibiotic resistance pathogens in fomities

8 pages (2008 words), Download 1
In modern time the extensive use of antibiotics in treatment of bacterial infections has led to some organisms developing resistance to some antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance can be defined as a form of drug resistance in which the targeted microorganisms can resist exposure to the same drug (Hawkey, 3) Spontaneous genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to microbial drug.

Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)

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Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish) Phylogeny or the evolutionary relationships of Turritopsis nutricula is a subject that requires further research (Schuchert 315-369). The basic scientific classification is as follows: Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Cnidaria

Osmosis Lab Report

4 pages (1004 words), Download 1
Osmosis and diffusion are the very essential at both the organ and cellular levels. Osmosis is the movement of the solvent molecules from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration through a semi permeable membrane.

Biology

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Additionally, struggle for existence occurs and leads to saving of character that seems profitable to the individual. Finally, the preserved character is favored to pass to the next generation. In addition, Darwin insight on the struggle of existence was also essential in the process of evolution.

The Fight Against the Use of Animals for Laboratory Experiments

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Vivisection is another term for animal experimentation and it literally means the cutting up of animals. During the 1980s, the animal research has declined due to public pressure and restraint in finances. However, the fast-paced technology during the mid-twentieth century had greatly increased the number of animals used in research and experiments for the advancement of science and medicine (Animal Welfare Online).

Impact of Menopause on Women Sexual Function

7 pages (1757 words), Download 1
The menopausal stage continues until the death of the woman or rather the woman does not go back to the earlier stage thus it is permanent. The idea of stopping the menstruation means the woman’s body is undergoing hormonal changes that affect her sexuality.

Genes and Environment Essay

4 pages (1004 words), Download 1
Chemically genes comprise of the DNA or de-oxy-ribonucleic acid and RNA or he ribonucleic acid. These are called the genetic material of the cell and are made up of nitrogen base, a pentose sugar and the phosphate molecule. DNA is double helix structure while the RNA is a single helix structure in a normal cell.

Theories of Evolution

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Eventually, these small adaptation accumulate and a new species is formed (Futuyma, 2005). Punctuated equilibrium on the other hand is a scientific theory that hypothesises that evolution occurs over time and is characterised by long durations of virtual standstill (stasis) punctuated by periods in which rapid development occur toward the formation of new forms.

Biodiversity. How Pharmaceutical companies are extracting precious plants and knowledge from poor countries and indigenous tribe

10 pages (2510 words), Download 1
Tropical forests particularly have been a major source of compounds that serve as medicines for various ailments, conditions and diseases. In fact, the rainforest has been dubbed the ultimate chemical laboratory considering that every species therein experiments with different chemical defenses to ensure that their survival is guaranteed in the harsh environment (Mongabay par 1).

Sickle Cell Disease

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The diseased individuals inherit the genes from their affected parents and pass it on to their offspring. In sickle cell disease, abnormal haemoglobin S replaces the normal haemoglobin A due to alterations in the genes. The function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen and deliver it to the different organs and cells of the human body.

The Anatomy of Human Digestive System

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The Anatomy of Human Digestive System Introduction Digestion is the process wherein food is mechanically and chemically breaks down into smaller pieces small enough to be utilized and absorb by the body. The human digestive system beginsfrom the mouth, passed through the esophagus, stomach, and the intestinesup to the anus for elimination.

“Opportunistic” Microbial Infections

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Opportunistic germs are bacteria and fungi that are found in the mucosae and the skin of external media. They then become virulent when the general immune resistance of the organism drops. This occurs under the influence of factors that favor the change. An example of this is some drugs, and the infections that arise from opportunistic germs have of late become more frequent.

Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt

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Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt Introduction: This investigation is facilitated by the observation of the lack of grass growth approximately three inches from the driveway where salt is customarily spread during the winter months. In addition to the bald patches near the driveway, slow growth is noticed in the patches of lawn up to a foot away from the driveway.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

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Identification of bacteria as a causative agents of diseases, epidemics, contaminated food and other sources of infection and illness is a process that has growing significance in the modern world. Bacteria are a causative agents for many diseases in humans and domestic animals that and can be a cause of significant health impact on the human population.

The Earthquake in Haiti in 2010

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A disaster is one of the most unwanted occurrences in life for an individual for it may often result to great loss not only to properties a person possess but also it can take the life of anyone in a blink of an eye. It could either be natural or man-made, which can be equally damaging to life and property.

The Hygiene Hypothesis

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Name: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Course: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Institution: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Tutor: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX @2010 The concept of “The hygiene hypothesis” was first mentioned by David Strachan and it states that inadequate exposure of young children to pathogenic microorganisms (e.g.

Meiosis

8 pages (2008 words), Download 1
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This type of cell division constitutes a very important part of sexual reproduction and all eukaryotes reproducing sexually have meiosis as a part of cell division. However, the prokaryotes i.e. the bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis

To what extent can knowledge of tumour associated antigens be useful in the management of cancer patients? Illustrate your answe

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This paper explains the antigenic extent in which the knowledge of Tumour-Associated Antigens is useful in the management of cancer patients. According to Hodge, Grosenbach & Schlom (2002), tumour-associated antigens are weakly immunogenic or functionally non-immunogenic antigens found in an immune competent individual.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the group of pathogenic micro-organisms that cause life threatening diseases in human beings. The organism belongs to Kingdom of Bacteria (Procaryotae), phylum Firmicutes, and class bacilli. Streptococcus pneumoniae is classified under the Order of Lactobacillales, family Streptoccaceae and Genus Streptococcus.

The Effect of Light Intensity on the Abundance of White Clover

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The Effect of Light Intensity on the Abundance of White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abstract This investigation looks at the effect of light intensity on the abundance of white clover (Trifolium repens)., using variations in cover provided by the canopy and exterior to the canopy to determine this.

Effects of Stress on the Immune System

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Stress has been found to have both beneficial as well as deleterious effects on the human body depending on the nature and duration of the stressor. In most cases, however, the harmful effects outweigh the benefits of stress on the immune system which is especially the case in chronic stressful conditions.

The differences and similarities between voluntary and reflex nerve actions

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Voluntary action is nothing but an anticipated, may or may not be conscious, goal oriented movement. It is initiated in the cerebral cortex of the brain and the impulse passes into the motor area of the cerebral cortex and then to the spinal cord. From here, impulse is passed to motor neuron and then to the muscle making it contract.

Identification of GMO foods using PCR Lab Report

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The genetically modified reference standards were used as controls and the samples were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. GMOs was not identified in all of our soy beans samples with PCR method, we rejected our null hypothesis that stated GMOs was present in our soy beans samples.

Immunization and Antibody Production

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Immunization and Antibody Production 1. Explain antibody formation resulting from both natural and artificial exposure to antigens Immunologically, it is said that the body is naive to the antigen before they encounter them, this brings the theory that the body cannot have specific antibody to any antigen before they encounter them.

Essay on Hypersensitivity Reaction

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In order for hypersensitivity reactions to occur, they need the host to be in a state of pre-sensitization. Gell and Coombs classified these reactions into four groups. These are: allergy, antibody dependent hypersensitivity, immune complex disease, delayed hypersensitivity disease, and autoimmune disease.

Multiple Sclerosis

4 pages (1004 words), Download 1
With regards to the symptoms that oftentimes accompany MS and should serve as a warning to the individual that they have the disease, the reader and/or patient should understand that the symptoms can exhibit themselves in a multitude of different ways

Protein biology essay

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A1. Lysozyme is an enzyme which is also named as muramidase. It has 129 amino acids and has five to seven alpha helix and three stranded anti parallel beta sheets. It is ellipsoidal in shape with a large cleft on one side forming its active site.(Kotz, Treichel, Townsend, 2009) It catalyses the hydrolysis of 1,4 beta linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycans present in bacterial cell wall.

autoimmunity and risk of cancet

4 pages (1004 words), Download 1
Despite considerable advancements in understanding the nature of autoimmune disease; the vast majority of immunologic processes require further research to clearly delineate the etiological basis of this disease group (Shoenfeld & Gershwin, 2000). Examples of autoimmune diseases are Grave disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Type 1 diabetes, Multiple sclerosis, SLE and myasthenia gravis etc (Pritchard & Korf, 2013).

How does the immune system response to V.cholerae infection

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It is significant to note that the response is not specific in nature and does not target specific pathogens. In the first response, the IgM will be responsible for the detoxification of the pathogen by the antibodies. IgM is efficient after the initial attack by the pathogen.

respiratory physiology

3 pages (753 words), Download 1
Vital capacity of male and female was compared and the effect of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the inspired air along with the effect of hyperventilation on breath holding limit was also measured. Carbon dioxide is one of those factors whose presence in the inspired air directly relates to the respiratory rate and tidal volume.

Rhabdomyolysis

5 pages (1255 words), Download 1
In most cases, the resultant complications often include cardiac arrest, myogrobinuric acute renal failure, compartment syndrome, disseminated intravescular coagulation and other related life threatening complications. Most patients suffering from Rhabdomyolysis may also experience markedly elevated Creatine kinase(CK).
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