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How the eye is suited for the purpose of converting visible light into neural activity?

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 12
Similarly, alteration in anatomy also causes defects like myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism. However, various methods are also included in this essay to overcome these eye problems.

Innate and Adaptive Immunity

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity We live in an environment where we are constantly exposed to foreign particles which include, dust, chemicals, bacteria and viruses. If our body did not have an apt mechanism to tackle the incoming stream of foreign antigens we would soon have become victims of various harmful diseases.

The Red Blood cells

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 5
Section A Calculation for RBC Length of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Width of one smallest square = 1/20 mm Depth of one smallest square = 1/10 mm Volume of one smallest square = 1/20 x 1/20 x 1/10 = 1/4000 mm3 Total number of RBCs counted = 1036 (5 squares, 4 corners + 1 center) No.

Designer babies

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The process of creating designer baby has often questioned because of its unstable moral platform. The processes involved are not natural. Genetic engineering of babies comes with some challenges. Some of its shortcomings are: - Division of the socioeconomic strata, Designer babies intensify the superficiality in the society, not a guaranteed process and it is not an ordinary course of life.

Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field

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Name Instructor’s Name Course Date A Research Essay that Explores Pesticide Use to Control Insect Infestation on a Grass Lawn and in a Farmer’s Field The most obvious benefit of pesticides depends on how and where it is being used, for instance, for economic purposes.

Corn

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The teosinte are also either rhizome-forming perennials or “annuals that reproduce every year from seed” (495). Corn or maize, however, has a rigid rachis called the cob and is made up of kernels (494). Although some scientists believe that teosinte is the ancestor of corn, many people do not because of the differences of the appearance of teosinte when compared with corn.

'How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body'

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 3
Proteins usually perform multiple roles in the body, and exhibit a great level of diversity. Dietary proteins usually undergo dissembling into amino acids, which are the building blocks. The body only has the potential to absorb amino acids, explaining why the body embarks on the digestive process.

Gene Therapy

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The genes thus introduced exert their benefits by either compensating for the abnormal genes or by producing beneficial protein or by supplementing the abnormal gene (Hecht, n. p.). The first gene therapy clinical trial started in 1990 (Verma and Weitzman, n.

A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beat

2 pages (502 words) , Download 2
A comparative study on the effect of different chemicals on Daphnia heart beats Daphnia magna (water flea) is a small freshwater crustacean existing in different environments such as in lakes, rivers, and streams. Daphnia is frequently used in a bioassay to investigate the effect of a chemical on the living organism.

The use of antibiotics and the concerns of creating strains of microbial resistant organisms.

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Nevertheless, microbes which are resistant to the therapy of antibiotic drug and yet cause the disease expose the people to a lot of health problems. Diseases which can not often be treated by the antibiotics include but are not limited to gonorrhea, pneumonia, wound infections, septicemia and tuberculosis.

Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis

14 pages (3514 words) , Download 2
Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis Name - Course Instructor University Date of Submission Heredity, Genetics and Protein Synthesis TAQ 1: Write a short essay describing the role of genes and chromosomes in the transmission of human characteristics giving at least one example.

The Scientific Method Paper

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A standard process of questioning and analysis is followed to obtain data to test a hypothesis or educated guess. Scientists all around the world follow this same procedure to test questions about natural phenomenon.

“Gametogenesis"

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Gametogenesis is the formation of male and female gametes or sex cells. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the formation of male and female gametes, respectively, by the process of mitosis and meiosis. Gametes unite in the process of fertilization. The most important consequence of meiosis is that it produces an enormous amount of genetic variation through the production of different combinations of chromosomes.

Effects of Stress on the Immune System

7 pages (1757 words) , Download 2
Stress has been found to have both beneficial as well as deleterious effects on the human body depending on the nature and duration of the stressor. In most cases, however, the harmful effects outweigh the benefits of stress on the immune system which is especially the case in chronic stressful conditions.

respiratory physiology

3 pages (753 words) , Download 2
Vital capacity of male and female was compared and the effect of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the inspired air along with the effect of hyperventilation on breath holding limit was also measured. Carbon dioxide is one of those factors whose presence in the inspired air directly relates to the respiratory rate and tidal volume.

Human and Animal Interrelationships

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The nature and scope of the relationship have, however, been differing depending on the type of animal and the benefits an animal has to humans. This relationship has been conceptualized in terms of bringing animals into the human realm. Conventionally, the relationships between humans and animals that have been regarded as domestic are very variable in respect to control of specific animals such as honey-bees, elephants, cats, horses, and cattle among others (Marchello 11).

How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 2
Disassembly of proteins is also called as proteolysis. First of all, proteins in our food are broken down into smaller units called as peptide chains. Many digestive enzymes include pepsin, trypsin, elastase and chymotrypsin. These peptides are further converted into amino acids by various proteolytic enzymes.

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical 1 Antibiotics and Agar Diffusion)

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 2
This practical involves three experiments which were carried out to quantitatively analyze and measure antibiotic susceptibility of various microorganisms. The first experiment investigates the effects of variables such as agar depth, presences of salt and inoculums size on the size of inhibition zones.

Darwin and Evolution

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Several theories have been ever since to understand the origin of man and concepts such as evolution and speciation. Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection even though slightly debatable provides a firm insight into what might had been the basis of our existence.

Proteins

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 2
There are many ways in which protein concentrations in substances, particularly solutions, can be determined. The most common approach is the application of a regression analysis model to develop a relationship between protein concentration in a solution and absorbance rate that can be experimentally determined.

Physiology and metabolism, cardiovascular system, MacMan computer simuklation

19 pages (4769 words) , Download 2
Setting the venous resistance at low values would reduce the ventricular function together with the heart rate. This means that the increasing venous resistance has minimum influence on the blood pressure. Setting the venous resistance at high values may alter the blood pressure.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

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Identification of bacteria as a causative agents of diseases, epidemics, contaminated food and other sources of infection and illness is a process that has growing significance in the modern world. Bacteria are a causative agents for many diseases in humans and domestic animals that and can be a cause of significant health impact on the human population.

The Effect of Light Intensity on the Abundance of White Clover

14 pages (3514 words) , Download 1
The Effect of Light Intensity on the Abundance of White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abstract This investigation looks at the effect of light intensity on the abundance of white clover (Trifolium repens)., using variations in cover provided by the canopy and exterior to the canopy to determine this.

Thesis proposal about antibiotic resistance pathogens in fomities

8 pages (2008 words) , Download 1
In modern time the extensive use of antibiotics in treatment of bacterial infections has led to some organisms developing resistance to some antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance can be defined as a form of drug resistance in which the targeted microorganisms can resist exposure to the same drug (Hawkey, 3) Spontaneous genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to microbial drug.

Each Illness is Caused by a Bacterium

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A 27-year old white female presented at the walking clinic of her local physician on August 15. On physical exam, the patient had a fever of 38.5C. She appeared fatigued, had tender joints, and complained of a headache, a stiff neck and a backache. The physician noticed a circular "rash" about 5 inches in diameter, with a bright red leading edge and a dim center in the form of a "bull’s eye".

Origin and Evolution of Birds Paper

10 pages (2510 words) , Download 1
Birds are animals that evolved millions of years ago due to a number of factors in order to resemble the modern day birds (Heilmann 2). As more research is put forth on the origin and the evolution of birds, many results seems to be emanating day by day as new discoveries are made.

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

10 pages (2510 words) , Download 1
There is growing acceptance to multiple sclerosis not being a unified disease entity, but instead a complex mix of several clinical syndromes that have varied underlying neuropathology and dissimilar therapeutic response to the currently available therapeutics.

Designer babies should not be legalized

11 pages (2761 words) , Download 1
Designer babies should not be legalized In the recent years, over the news media, newspapers, scientific journals, internet and research papers, many became astonished on hearing the term ‘designer babies.’ Designer babies becomes majorly based on the concept of one selecting traits that one wishes for his or her child to have.

Entry Strategies of the foreign firms in the Indian Android Smart Phone Market

10 pages (2510 words) , Download 1
....................................................................2 Background information......................................................................2 Literature review...........................................................................

Biodiversity and Ethno botanist Exploitation by Pharmaceutical Companies

9 pages (2259 words) , Download 1
According to the paper traditional herbalists and ethnobotanists have been in existence in various society since time immemorial. Pharmaceutical companies commonly tap into the wealth of knowledge that ethnobotanists and traditional herbalists have without compensating them adequately, only using this information to enrich themselves with gross disregard to property rights and common good.

Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt

3 pages (753 words) , Download 1
Grass Growth in the Presence of Salt Introduction: This investigation is facilitated by the observation of the lack of grass growth approximately three inches from the driveway where salt is customarily spread during the winter months. In addition to the bald patches near the driveway, slow growth is noticed in the patches of lawn up to a foot away from the driveway.

Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)

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Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish) Phylogeny or the evolutionary relationships of Turritopsis nutricula is a subject that requires further research (Schuchert 315-369). The basic scientific classification is as follows: Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Cnidaria

Energy, Metabolism and Cells

3 pages (753 words) , Download 1
If, however, there is a lack of oxygen in the organism, it resorts to fermentation in order to produce ATP, along with either ethanol or lactic acid. All throughout the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration enzymes are utilized. Enzymes catalyze reactions in different ways, and enzyme-substrate complexes are formed through a three-step mechanism.

Osmosis Lab Report

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 1
Osmosis and diffusion are the very essential at both the organ and cellular levels. Osmosis is the movement of the solvent molecules from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration through a semi permeable membrane.

The Anatomy of Human Digestive System

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The Anatomy of Human Digestive System Introduction Digestion is the process wherein food is mechanically and chemically breaks down into smaller pieces small enough to be utilized and absorb by the body. The human digestive system beginsfrom the mouth, passed through the esophagus, stomach, and the intestinesup to the anus for elimination.

The Hygiene Hypothesis

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Name: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Course: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Institution: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Tutor: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX @2010 The concept of “The hygiene hypothesis” was first mentioned by David Strachan and it states that inadequate exposure of young children to pathogenic microorganisms (e.g.

The Earthquake in Haiti in 2010

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A disaster is one of the most unwanted occurrences in life for an individual for it may often result to great loss not only to properties a person possess but also it can take the life of anyone in a blink of an eye. It could either be natural or man-made, which can be equally damaging to life and property.

Impact of Menopause on Women Sexual Function

7 pages (1757 words) , Download 1
The menopausal stage continues until the death of the woman or rather the woman does not go back to the earlier stage thus it is permanent. The idea of stopping the menstruation means the woman’s body is undergoing hormonal changes that affect her sexuality.

Meiosis

8 pages (2008 words) , Download 1
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This type of cell division constitutes a very important part of sexual reproduction and all eukaryotes reproducing sexually have meiosis as a part of cell division. However, the prokaryotes i.e. the bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis

Sickle Cell Anemia

6 pages (1506 words) , Download 1
The term sickle cell comes from the sickle shape or the crescent type shape of the affected hemoglobin molecules. It is caused due to a change in just a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule out of a billion others present in the cells of the human body. It may seem like a minor change but the effect is disastrous.

Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 1
1. What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component. The physical examination for prostate cancer has two main components, namely Digital Rectal examination (DRE) and measuring blood levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Digital Rectal examination is undertaken as a part of annual examination to directly palpate the prostate and check for abnormal texture and presence of lumps.

Sickle Cell Disease

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The diseased individuals inherit the genes from their affected parents and pass it on to their offspring. In sickle cell disease, abnormal haemoglobin S replaces the normal haemoglobin A due to alterations in the genes. The function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen and deliver it to the different organs and cells of the human body.

Genes and Environment Essay

4 pages (1004 words) , Download 1
Chemically genes comprise of the DNA or de-oxy-ribonucleic acid and RNA or he ribonucleic acid. These are called the genetic material of the cell and are made up of nitrogen base, a pentose sugar and the phosphate molecule. DNA is double helix structure while the RNA is a single helix structure in a normal cell.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the group of pathogenic micro-organisms that cause life threatening diseases in human beings. The organism belongs to Kingdom of Bacteria (Procaryotae), phylum Firmicutes, and class bacilli. Streptococcus pneumoniae is classified under the Order of Lactobacillales, family Streptoccaceae and Genus Streptococcus.

The scientific origin of designer babies

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Scholars are at war with themselves in regard to the political, religious and scientific debates sparked by designer babies. Zahedi and Larijani in their article “Medical Genetic Ethics: Islamic Views and Considerations in Iran” point out that Islam as much as other religion appreciates the benefits of technological and scientific advancements. Legal and health issues aside, what do scriptures and doctrines dictate?

The Fight Against the Use of Animals for Laboratory Experiments

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Vivisection is another term for animal experimentation and it literally means the cutting up of animals. During the 1980s, the animal research has declined due to public pressure and restraint in finances. However, the fast-paced technology during the mid-twentieth century had greatly increased the number of animals used in research and experiments for the advancement of science and medicine (Animal Welfare Online).

Sickle Cell Anemia

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This sickling of the cells is caused due to a change in one of the nucleotides of a DNA molecule out of the billion other cells present in the human body. This change may seem minor, but the results are disastrous. A person affected with sickle cell anemia inherits a mutated or recessive allele from both the parents.

Biology

5 pages (1255 words) , Download 1
Additionally, struggle for existence occurs and leads to saving of character that seems profitable to the individual. Finally, the preserved character is favored to pass to the next generation. In addition, Darwin insight on the struggle of existence was also essential in the process of evolution.

Theories of Evolution

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Eventually, these small adaptation accumulate and a new species is formed (Futuyma, 2005). Punctuated equilibrium on the other hand is a scientific theory that hypothesises that evolution occurs over time and is characterised by long durations of virtual standstill (stasis) punctuated by periods in which rapid development occur toward the formation of new forms.

“Opportunistic” Microbial Infections

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Opportunistic germs are bacteria and fungi that are found in the mucosae and the skin of external media. They then become virulent when the general immune resistance of the organism drops. This occurs under the influence of factors that favor the change. An example of this is some drugs, and the infections that arise from opportunistic germs have of late become more frequent.
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