There are many literatures romanticizing the richness of its civilization but the fact remains that these social groups were hunters and gatherers with some already having some semblance of agricultural knowledge. When the Spaniards came with their swords and their cross, the bow and arrow wielding natives were forced to become 'civilized' which stood for adapting and tailoring their customs and habits according to European culture.
The Native Americans who were conquered soon became mini Spaniards because they shifted their beliefs and customs to mimic those of the colonizers and most importantly, they traded their native tongue for Spanish words. Although many native groups which were left alone resumed their hunting and gathering orientation, most of the inhabitants of California have become agriculturally oriented especially with the establishment of Ranchos. These areas were the land where cattle and sheep were raised. It was granted by the Spanish and Mexican regimes to encourage settlement. The domestic animals soon became important exports such as cow hides and fat used to make candles and soaps.
Not only were they affected in language and way of subsistence, they also experien ...Show more