There are numerous examples: travel and holiday agents are all linked by networks directly to the databases maintained by airlines, railways and holiday companies making possible virtually instantaneous booking, computing cash tills and bar-code readers in supermarkets are linked to computers and form part of an integrated stock control, ordering and sales analysis system without which modern supermarkets could not function.
New technology is having effects on organization structures. Because of the easier and speedier communications and the increasing sophistication of automatic decision making by computers, middle management is tending to disappear in many organizations including service centers and manufacturing, hospitals and trade organizations, etc. (Frame, D.J., (2002). Organizations are becoming flatter and leaner because top management are able to monitor operations more directly and computers are now taking many decisions previously taken by middle management. Examples include: computerized stock and production control in manufacturing, automatic credit scoring and loan authorizations in banks. IT is also changing the nature of the debate about centralization versus decentralization. ...Show more