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Acids' Alkalis and PH - Term Paper Example

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Acids' Alkalis and PH

Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) Cl-(aq) + HOCl(aq) + H+(aq)
When a dilute solution of NaOH is added to an aqueous solution of chlorine, the OH- ions will react with the H+ ions (strong acid-base reaction). This will lead to a decrease in the concentration of H+(aq). According to Le Chatelier's principle, the reaction will shift to the side that opposes this change. This means that the reaction will shift to the right.

(d) the temperature of an equilibrium mixture of 1 (d) is decreased
3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) H = - 149 kJ mol-1
The reaction is exothermic. According to Le Chatelier's principle, a decrease in the temperature of the equilibrium mixture causes the reaction to shift to the side that opposes that change. This entails that the reaction will shift to the right.
8 marks

3. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen were allowed to reach equilibrium at 450oC in a vessel of volume 1 dm3.
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
The equilibrium mixture was found to contain 2 moles of sulphur trioxide, 0.5 moles of sulphur dioxide and 0.25 moles of oxygen.

(a) Write an expression for Kc including units.

[SO3 (g)]2
Kc = mol-1 dm3
[SO2(g)]2 [O2(g)]

(b) Calculate Kc at 450oC.

22
Kc = = 64 mol-1 dm3
0.52 x 0.25

(c) What effect would adding a catalyst have on the position of equilibrium
Adding a catalyst to the above reaction causes the forward and reverse reaction rate constants to be increased by the same amount. This means that equilibrium will be reached more quickly but will...
This will lead to a decrease in the concentration of H+(aq). According to Le Chatelier's principle, the reaction will shift to the side that opposes this change. This means that the reaction will shift to the right.
The reaction is exothermic. According to Le Chatelier's principle, a decrease in the temperature of the equilibrium mixture causes the reaction to shift to the side that opposes that change. This entails that the reaction will shift to the right.
Adding a catalyst to the above reaction causes the forward and reverse reaction rate constants to be increased by the same amount. This means that equilibrium will be reached more quickly but will have no effect of the position of equilibrium (Brown, LeMay and Bursten, 1991).
Kc is the ratio of the forward and reverse reaction rate constants. As seen above, the catalyst will increase these reaction rates by the same amount. There will hence be no change in the value of Kc (Brown, LeMay and Bursten, 1991).
When ammonia is dissolved in water, it accepts H+. ...Show more

Summary

2. For each equilibrium system in question 1, above, predict the change that will occur to the position of equilibrium when the stated change occurs. Justify each prediction by considering 'le Chatelier's Principle'
According to 'Le Chatelier's Principle', if a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one of the components, the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to counteract the effect of the disturbance (Brown, LeMay and Bursten, 1991)…
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