King uses logos for explanation or rational presentation of the case directed toward the intellect of the auditor. During this period of time, the main driven forces of equal rights movement included new perception of the world and self, new interpretation of freedom and humans rights. The historical evens changed political viewpoints on the notions of freedom and diversity of blacks and minorities. King states: "In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self-purification; and direct action" (King 221). Using dramatic descriptions, King vividly portrays that racial relations and racism causes labor division and class struggle. This universal process contains for America a special problem: the proletariat is largely black, and its demand for inclusion thus threatens the political control of a white minority. Using vivid examples, King states: "It is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative" (King 221). It is not surprising, therefore, if leading Black intellectuals attack the notion of racial democracy and seek to provide a new narrative which offers a central place to those of African descent. The enslaved African became a 'citizen' as stated under the law, but he also became a 'nigger', cornered from all sides. Through vivid examples, King appeals to the audience stating that this was made apparent in the ways in which ethnic identities were subsumed, and still are, within and between economic identities, a political-economic class identity with the ethnic referent made invisible (Lischer 23).
Ethoc (ethical appeal) is founded on the moral character of the speaker as presented in Letter. The first and most important part of ethical appeal is the moral character of the speaker which persuades when his Letter is delivered in a manner rendering him worthy of belief. This confidence is established in and by the speech itself and not through previous notion the audience may have of the speaker. To win trust, confidence, and conviction, the speaker exhibit intelligence, good sense, virtue and goodwill. " Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half-truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal"(King 224). King demonstrates his the way he exercises his moral choice. For King, this part is very important because it helps the speaker to establish his ethical values as sensible, virtuous, and trustworthy. Also, King gives special attention to the character of his audience to which he suits his Letter. Kings appeals to the audience stating: "We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal" (King 228). As it is essential to impress the audience favorably with his own character, so it is important for him to adapt his tone and sentiments to the audience (Overton 34).
Emotional appeal is produced when King places his listeners in a particular state of mind and makes them feel emotion. It induces belief in an audience and appeals to their inner feelings. On the other hand, rights are