It was more often that the advisors did not have any 'consideration of intellectual underpinnings, honesty, cumulative knowledge or independent evaluations' of the political and social scenario. There were also no recordings of the decisions and the reasons for such decisions written down. Most of advises, according to DeLeon, remained 'particularistic, ad hoc exercises' taken up when something was needed by the prince or the monarch. Documenting the decisions and supporting ideas were done during the later half of the nineteenth century. Subsequent growth of the policy science was based on the foundations and concepts that stemmed from these days.
During and after World War II, there were major upheavals that were taking place all over the world. The concept of the nation state had taken firmer shape in the world and so did the concept of independence or freedom. The political economy and the political science itself underwent major changes in the way decisions were made. ...Show more