It was more often that the advisors did not have any 'consideration of intellectual underpinnings, honesty, cumulative knowledge or independent evaluations' of the political and social scenario. There were also no recordings of the decisions and the reasons for such decisions written down. Most of advises, according to DeLeon, remained 'particularistic, ad hoc exercises' taken up when something was needed by the prince or the monarch. Documenting the decisions and supporting ideas were done during the later half of the nineteenth century. Subsequent growth of the policy science was based on the foundations and concepts that stemmed from these days.
During and after World War II, there were major upheavals that were taking place all over the world. The concept of the nation state had taken firmer shape in the world and so did the concept of independence or freedom. The political economy and the political science itself underwent major changes in the way decisions were made. ...
The advisors had to change their color based on the rising trend in these nation states and those states that were coming up just then.
The fight against and for separatism is another major change in the thought process to become an independent state or nation! This was a serious motivator for the change in policy sciences in line with the thoughts that entered the circle. Similarly, the changes in the economic scenario and the rise of the new economic and political power in the form of the United States also meant that the entire political scene has to be reworked. While there are some uprisings that were anti imperialistic and others socialistic, all that it meant was that the advisors had a different role to play4. The social requirements and the needs of the people, had to be reflected to the monarch or to the heads of the government through these advisors or duly elected members of the parliament or governing council.
Immediately after the World War II, the impact on the advisory policy took a major turn5. With more stress on economic growth and industrial growth, the rights of the labor and the people became more pronounced. In all the nations, the monarchies gave way to socialistic and democratic systems that took its power from the people. The advisory policy made a complete U turn here and slowly but steadily moved away from the monarchy and the power center shifted to the ministers or the advisory boards. And the major turn in the policy is the twist that could be visibly seen in terms of ethics and humanitarian issues6. Equality of human beings, racial equality and equality of nations were the main thrust of most of the policy advisors in this period of the policy making history.
War on Poverty up to late 1970s
War on Poverty was again