Yet, in today's age of information and knowledge, it may be seen that it has become more important than ever to keep an eye on including literature that pertains directly to the analysis and findings of the subject at hand. This is where a review of the literature comes in as it helps the researcher look at the use of literature gathered in a critical manner. According to Cooper (Davies et al, 2003) "a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports".
These principles as laid down by Cooper have been followed in ensuring that the literature used within this dissertation has been reviewed carefully in order to omit irrelevant pieces of work and include only those that are relevant to the topic. (Davies et al, 2003) This paper thus summarises the various works that have been used in terms of various sub topics and sections within the dissertation. In doing so, there is a close connection with the methodology and basic statement of the dissertation. The principles borrowed from the works of the scholars that have been used in this dissertation correspond directly with the statement of this paper.
As a nation, the United States of America has paid a heavy price for attaining civilization. This seems to be the basic premise upon which author T.H Breen has built the ideologies that shapes the nation, in his book titled, The Power of Words - Documents in American History. This book is based on an important aspect of American history which starts just as the civil war ended in 1860. History is still often seen as the presentation of facts from the past, so that learning involves the mere memorization of the facts. What makes history so interesting and stimulating, however, are the debates that emerge over the facts. From an early stage, the middle passage inspired moral outrage among those opposed to the slave trade, who often treated it as the most horrific part of the whole slave experience. Recently some scholars have argued that such moral outrage has led to a "melodramatic" rather than a "historical" account of the middle passage. I have tried to present an argument that we need a more balanced and less moralistic account of the middle passage from the perspective of the changing values and challenges thrown up by industrialization. (Breen T. H; 1997) This points to the disintegration of the traditional family system in keeping with the emergence of the new, immigrant family within Central America where working towards making a new identity is what counts the most in terms of reunification issues and issues pertaining to separation during migration of entire families. Another important piece of literature in this regard is by Coutin (2005) who believes that violence against children is the most common root of