Hence, patents are related with invention, trademarks relate to distinguish a company or good fro others and copyright is related to the originality and artistic creativity. All these forms are protected by specific laws.
There are certain factors that a company has to consider for protecting its inventions doing business in multiple countries. These factors can be categorized by marketing factors and the legal factors. While considering the marketing factors, the company has to determine if it is better to diffuse the technology so the product rises to the position of dominance or to protect the invention so the competitors may not be able to copy it. At the legal front, the company has to consider the possibilities of real protection given by the host country. Every country has its own means and methods to protect the intentions. Thus, if the company find it difficult to protect the invention, it may consider relying on trade secrets instead.
There are two distinct reasons why a company should consider protecting the product through trade secret laws instead of patent and copyrights. First, the company has to adopt the trade secret policy when the formula is not patentable. Second, the company should prefer trade secret when it finds it appropriate to expose the product to the public without apprehension of loosing the underlying technology to the competitors.
Q # 4.
Cloning is the form of imitating an invention or product which successfully utilizes the technology without violating the copyright, patents, trade secret and/or the trademarks legality. The example of Compaq imitating IBM's BIOS is a vivid illustration how a company skilfully imitate a technology and still no legal action can be taken against it.
Q # 5.
Microsoft Windows operating system is an example that lies on the continuum of wholly proprietary system.
Q # 6.
There are many factors that influenced Microsoft to adopt the wholly proprietary system. First, Microsoft wants to monopolize the market as it is the main controller of the software market. Second, there are numerous software companies producing their software running on different operating systems. Thus, if Microsoft decides for the wholly open system there is very likelihood that other software companies would develop modify the operating system to suit their own software.
Q. # 1
There are certain advantages of large companies over the small ones. The biggest difference between large and small companies is there budget and financial resources that allow the large companies to invest heavily for engaging their scientists and researchers for further innovations. Apart from financial resources, the human resources also contribute significantly for the success of large companies. Thus, the large companies can outperform small companies due to their extended resources. On the other hand, small companies also have some advantages over the large ones. Most importantly, they can concentrate more on their limited resources to achieve instant results of their research. Further, there is limited bureaucratic hindrances that undermine the efforts of large firms.
Q # 2: Formalization can help the organization to facilitate and streamline their administrative works so the workers and customers can interact effectively and the organization work is carried out smoothly. Formalization also reduces the burden of too many