They tend to hire, promote, and retain minorities; encourage vendor diversity; and training for employees. Some, like Coca-Cola, Motorola, and Mars, actually conduct cultural audits to ensure that diversity is pervasive in the organization.
Employee development is designed to help the organization ensure that it has the necessary talent internally for meeting future human resource needs. The focus of employee development is on a future position within the organization for which the employee requires additional competencies.
Stoner, J. A. F. Freeman, R. E. Gilbert, D. R. (2006, pp. 187-216) argued that all managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. For instance, when the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant, he or she is acting in a figurehead role. All managers also have a leadership role. This role includes hiring, training, motivating, and disciplining employees.
The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. Mintzberg, H. (1989: pp. 176-219) described this activity as contacting outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization. The sales manager who obtains information from the quality-control manager in his or her own company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager has contacts with other sales executives through a marketing trade association, he or she has an outside liaison relationship.1
Formal education: Golden, K. A. & Ramanujam, V. (1985: pp. 89-96) mentioned that the use of educational qualifications in screening candidates seems to be a universal practice. A recent study of 300 large organizations in 22 countries demonstrate that employee selection practices differ by nations but a few common procedures were found and formal education is one of them. Employee development and