Theory of Knowledge (TOK) is a product of doubt (Russell, 1926) where knowledge is analyzed as justified true belief (Holt, 2006) although not all justified true beliefs constitute knowledge. Descartes believes that knowledge is conviction based on reason so strong that it…
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We take these for granted and we also believe that we know these things. We see and understand things not as they are but as we are. Only when we ask ourselves whether we really know these things do we get down to examining the knowing. This knowing takes place through different means. We see and understand through emotions, perception and reason.
Reasoning has been used by most philosophers to arrive at the truth and is an important way of learning according to the TOK. Reasoning is not through logic; it is not automatic but comes through experience. However reason does allow analyzing the situation deeply and taking decisions. Reasoning is a collective endeavour by which people construct meaning together by exchanging, modifying and improving their ideas and opinions (IBO, 2006). Reason is present in everyday decision making and problem solving. When disputes arise, the appropriateness of the reasons for acceptance of the facts is important.
Reasoning is the ‘common sense’ way of knowing things and it does not depend upon the limits of sensory observation (Ehman, n.d.). This faculty of ‘common sense’ has been granted only to human beings which means the power of reasoning rests with the human beings. The Foolish Friend is the story of a king who groomed his monkey to be his closest aide, the most trustworthy and natural companion (Ashliman, 2002). One day while taking a stroll in the garden, the king asked the money to ensure that nothing disturbed while he took rest. The money kept strict vigilance and very sincerely too. After some time the monkey found a bee hovering over the King’s face. The monkey tried to keep the bee away by scaring it with a stick. Being faithful to his master, he could not allow anyone to hurt or bite the master. When he found he was not able to frighten the bee, blinded as he was with anger, the monkey killed the bee with one stroke of the sword. Unfortunately the same sword killed the king also. The monkey tried to ...
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