, stratified sampling implies the same research when conducted after dividing the total sample into various strata and then considering each individual result as one of the inherent characteristics specific to each stratum.
3. Sampling error occurs when the researcher tries to conclude about the population characteristics after studying the significance of the outcomes on carrying out the tests on the samples from the population.
4. A reliability check is that which finds out if the results so obtained from conducting a study on a sample drawn from a population remains the same when a within-sample test is conducted. On the other hand, validity tests are meant to find out if the topic or subject of research has really been adhered to while gathering information to carry on with the research