The highest ever disaster caused by an earthquake occurred on January 24, 1556 taking a toll of 8, 30,000 lives in Shensi province of China. Affected people bear the risk of loosing their property, as the whole city gets changed into debris. There is double burden of evacuation besides the property damage, which is equally torturing as is the occurrence of an earthquake. After being evacuated people are compelled to live under the sky as the property is destroyed (Asimov 1998).
Powerful earthquakes put people and property in danger by swaying buildings and creating cracks beneath resulting in landslides. Such powerful earthquakes have caused huge destruction of property including bridges, water tanks, sewer, and utility services the world over wherever they have occurred. Damage increases multifold where soil is soft due to water saturation, which enlarges the circumference of ground movements. On slanting slopes, soil starts falling during the occurrence of earthquakes, causing landslides. Tsunami is an indirect reaction of earthquake, causing more loss of life and property than the earthquake itself because of powerful sea waves (USGS 1997).
The effect of earthquakes is measured through their intensity and magnitude. Intensity of the earthquake is measured by the violence of feeling its impact at different places of the affected area. The magnitude of the violence is decided by the effect on buildings,
grounds, and the people. The intensity scale of determining the loss of people and property is different for different countries. In most of the America, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale having 12 intensity levels is used. Earthquake of intensity I is hardly felt. Intensity II is noticed by people resting on the top floors of the building. Earthquake of intensity III is felt while remaining inside of the upper floor buildings. Effect of intensity IV can be
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