Teachers tend to select boys more often for special services. There is little information about the effect of family SES on the selection process and it is contradictory. More parental involvement and student engagement have a positive effect on the selection process.
The study included 441 girls and 465 boys all in the sixth grade. Teachers and students filled out questionnaires in the classroom. The teachers reported the students’ need for services. They also filled a Teachers Report Form which reported students’ behavior and psychological problems. Additionally they assessed the parents’ interest and their own cooperation with parents. The students reported how satisfied they were with their academic achievement and interest in school. They reported their family SES by the occupation of their parents and whether they had been unemployed in the past six months.
The results showed that there was in fact a gap between need for and access to the services. The gap was largest in remedial instruction and smallest in psychological counseling. The only difference according to gender was in the remedial instruction where more boys had not received this remedial instruction and this was because of budget cuts. Only in psychological counseling were there reasons beside budget cuts for the lack of access to the services.
In general the study showed the factors that affected each type of service. These were in remedial instruction- lower family SES, lower parental involvement, lower student engagement all predicted a higher need for services; for Special Ed. services- male gender, lower family SES, lower parental involvement, internalizing symptoms and lower student engagement all predicted higher need for services; and for psychological counseling- male gender, lower student engagement and below average academic achievement all predicted higher need for services.
Yet the factors that influenced