Components of this model, from lowest to the highest are in the order, physical needs, safety and security needs, social needs of love and belonging, esteem needs of respect and confidence, and finally self-actualization needs of knowledge and understanding.
Baumeister (p.88) asserts that esteem needs are required to enhance a person’s overall personality by providing a sense of achievement and shielding negative emotions. Self-esteem is associated with confidence and high expectations of success; high self-esteem is associated with optimism and lower anxiety. It also provides a sense of integrity and adequacy. Maslow’s theory points towards need for respect from others and from self. Respect from others confers recognition, acceptance and appreciation. Realizing that human being is a social animal, the Sociometer theory proposes that man continually tries to seek inclusion into social groups. Psychologically, it reduces anxiety and improves health (Baumeister, 89). Employees’ self-esteem is enhanced by gaining recognition in the form of awards and appreciations, and a need to enhance self-esteem, in order for the employees to feel included in the virtual social ‘wanted’ circles, is an effective motivator (Marriner-Tomey, 92).
Self-actualization needs refer to self-fulfilment in terms of all the activities a person can do or is capable of doing. This is driven by individual’s desires, interests and passion towards specific activity or job. Self-actualization needs occupy the topmost position in Maslow’s hierarchy. While the other motives are sought in order to fill deficiencies in one’s life or work, the self-actualization needs are sought in order to pursue growth and development (Gordon, 244). However, without realization of the other needs, self-actualization needs may not be very motivating to the employees. Achieving self-actualization in the work sphere is highly motivating for the employees because