The hypothalamus in the body produces gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that travels to the pituitary glands through the capillaries helping to stimulate the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In response to the FSH and LH the gonads or sex glands increase the production of sex hormones estrogens and androgens (testosterone), while adrenal glands also produce androgens. The production of androgens is increased by secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary gland.
The estrogen and testosterone released by gonads bring biological changes and help in development of breasts in girls and testicular development in boys. Other androgens result in changes of body proportion and function of organ systems. The puberty onset results in physical development, hormonal changes and sexual maturation which vary both within and between the sexes. During puberty girls experience pubic hair, breast development and growth of reproductive system. Girls increase their height and changes in body proportions while beginning their menarche by age 11-16.
Boys experience changes later than girls involving pubic hair, enlargement of penis, growth of scrotum and development of reproductive system. The height increases while body proportions and body hair changes experiencing voice changes and spermarche.
The adolescent’s cognitive development determines the ability of a person to learn, think, reason and adapt to the environment. Piaget’s study of cognitive development theory is mainly based on three principles namely: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration; while his belief that cognitive development occurred in four stages that are universal as every person passes through all these stages in same order. These four stages are: sensorimotor development, preoperational period, concrete operations and formal operations.
Each stage is corresponded to certain age but there could be variations as some