The changing pattern of bone quality which has been provided with the advance of technology includes hormone replacement theory for females after menopause, physiotherapy and exercises for the old along with calcium supplements and medications available to overcome the other conditions which lead to osteoporosis. These methods employ the body with better resources for repair and it makes the body function in a proper way. This is how the changing pattern of bone quality through life supports the disposable soma view of ageing.
Answer: Gonadal disease can be caused by sexually transmitted diseases which include gonorrhoea and syphilis. It can be caused by genetic abnormalities which include Turner’s syndrome and gonadal dysgenesis. Autoimmunity against the ovaries and the testes can also be a cause of gonadal disease. Endocrine disorders also result in gonadal disease. These include the androgen resistance syndrome, pituitary tumors, hypothalamic tumors and excess secretion of androgens. Blood tests for the levels of hormones serve to act as biochemical markers in gonadal disease. Low or high levels of sex hormones can be indicative of this. In the case of sexually transmitted diseases the levels of antigens and antibodies can also serve as markers. Chromosomal karyotyping can also lead to diagnosis.
Answer: During the embryonic and fetal development the Y chromosome in the male is responsible for the formation of testes whereas the XX genotype is responsible for the formation of the ovaries. The testes releases testosterone and the ovary release oestrogen. Testosterone causes the development of male sexual organs whereas oestrogen contributes to the formation of female sexual organs. In the case of androgen insensitivity syndrome the receptors for testosterone in a child with XY genotype do not respond to it. Hence an individual with XY will not develop the male characteristics