eness obviously depends on the ability of law enforcement agencies to conform to the ideology, and meet the changing needs, of the society they protect, and to tackle the constant evolution in the character of crime. In democratic societies, policing policies have largely moved away from the rigidity of traditional policing. A policy which is popularly being adopted today is Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving (COPPS).
Community Oriented Policing acknowledges the right of the community to be involved in law enforcement. Prevention of crimes is by working in partnership with community members, and public and private non-governmental organizations, to identify and eliminate the underlying causal factors. There is the decentralization of authority and a personal approach from police officers, who are allotted permanent beats to become familiar members of the community. The focus is on shared responsibility of the police and the community through interactive community meetings, door to door calls and foot or bike patrols, fostering of mutual trust, and the formation of grassroots movements to monitor and report crimes. Community development projects, such as neighborhood clean-ups and combating drug usage, and problem solving, are prioritized. Officers are granted increased discretion and autonomy to deal with problems on a proactive, case-by-case basis, tailoring responses to particular local conditions. Rigid procedural responses are not favored. Community Oriented Policing “is cooperative, communicative and collaborative” (Summerfield, 2005).
Problem Oriented Policing emphasizes preventive responses. It acknowledges that community problems may not be strictly criminal in nature and police discretion and locality-specific responses are more effective than arrest and prosecution. It favors a long term approach and a proactive police role. It involves (a) Scanning: identifying a recurring problem, its’ frequency and consequences. (b) Analysis: