It exists in six genotypes, of these genotype I is most prevalent form of HCV. Since the virus exists in different genotypes and sub-genotypes, it becomes very challenging for the development of its vaccines. HCV is not related to other hepatitis viz. hepatitis A or hepatitis B. It is grouped in the family Flaviviridae along with yellow fever virus and dengue virus. As soon as virus gains entry in the liver, it elicits immune response resulting in inflammation; protracted inflammation lays the foundation of scarring which further takes the form of cirrhosis and thus preventing liver to perform its normal functions. Such condition paves the way for liver cancer (Alter, 2000).
It is transmitted through blood especially through blood transfusion, use of unsterile injections and rarely through sexual transmission (in cases where an individual is suffering with Sexually Transmitted Disease and has open sores).
7. Sporadic transmission: in this case the source of the infection cannot be found out, it results due to community-acquired infections where virus gets entry in body through cuts or injuries or an abrasion (Alter, 2000).
Use of sterile needles, safe hygiene conditions and routine blood examination, taking complete history of the patient, thorough screening of the blood for HCV when blood is donated by a donor or when given to the patient, use of self-capped needles, no sharing of personal belongings like razor, towels, toothbrushes,
Acute: it is the initial 6 months when the patient contacts the infection of Hepatitis C. as the disease is asymptomatic no initial signs appear in majority of the population. Only 30-40% of the infected cases develop symptoms like reduced appetite, tiredness, aching abdomen, jaundice, itch, burning sensation and flu.
When blood is examined through PCR, HCV can be seen in 1-3 weeks after getting the infection, moreover antibodies against the HCV could