Leo Sternbach a worker at Hoffmann-La Roche synthesized benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium) in 1955 while working for the formulation of tranquilizers. In the initial stages the pharmacological properties of the compounds were unsatisfactory and the project was stopped by…
Later, diazepam was marketed in 1963 by Hoffmann–La Roche under the trade name Valium. Thus two drugs emerged as the most successful commercially available drugs revolutionizing the science of anti-anxiolytic drugs. By the year 1970s they potentially replaced older drugs for sedative and hypnotic uses (Shorter, 2005).
Diazepam belongs to benzodiazepine group. Diazepam acts on ascending reticular formation (responsible for wakefulness) in midbrain and on limbic system (responsible for thought). Muscle relaxation is produced by primary medullary site of action and ataxia is due to action on cerebellum (Tripathi, 2008; Rang & Dale, 2007; Brunton, 2005).
Diazepam binds to benzodiazepine binding site on GABAA receptor Cl- channel complex. GABAA receptor is a pentameric structure (like a lily flower). It contains many sub-units and encloses Cl- channel. The opening of Cl- channel is modulated by GABA.
Diazepam by binding to benzodiazepine binding site (α/γ subunit interface) facilitates GABA action (more amount of GABA will bind to GABAA receptor). It is not a GABA mimetic, it only facilitates GABA mediated Cl- channel opening. Opening of Cl- channel causes influx of Cl- ions and causes hyperpolarization. This decreases the firing rate of neurons. Therefore it possesses hypnotic action- induction of sleep- reticular activating system- depresses CNS- decreases the spread of epileptic discharge, therefore possesses anticonvulsant action (Tripathi, 2008; Rang & Dale, 2007; Brunton, 2005).
The chloride channel is gated by the primary ligand GABA acting on GABAA receptor located on the β- subunit. The benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor located on the interface of α and γ subunits modulates GABAA receptor in either direction (Tripathi, 2008).
Oral absorption of Diazepam is good. Diazepam is widely distributed in body; absorption from intramuscular site of administration is ...
Cite this document
(“The Development of diazepam as an anxiolytic Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/393211-the-development-of-diazepam-as-an-anxiolytic
(The Development of Diazepam As an Anxiolytic Essay)
“The Development of Diazepam As an Anxiolytic Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/393211-the-development-of-diazepam-as-an-anxiolytic.
Mclean defines OD as any procedure based on behaviour that either to begin with or when prolonged, has the ability to develop within an organizational environment enhanced productivity, income, and knowledge of other expected outcomes whether for the individual or company benefit.
44). This in turn requires a sincere and complex educational and attitudinal effort on the part of the personnel to modify and tailor ones attitudes, beliefs and values in a way that enable the organization to adapt to and accommodate the emerging changes and challenges in term of technology, customer aspirations, altering market trends, ongoing economic cycles and the very process of change itself (Rampensad 2005, p.
Development practice (as opposed to development theory) has tended to place environmental concerns under the term ‘sustainable development’ without clear linkages to priorities of poverty reduction and growth. It important to focus on climate change since its impacts highly affects development and sustainability.
2012). A 3rd characteristic was added to disaster when the notion of uncertainty of event was to be another distinguishing factor of disaster. But for Sundar, I. and Sezhiyan, S.T. (2012, Front Cover), the definition of disaster is a crisis not within the control of a human being due to its “widespresd damage” and one that people cannot immediately recover due to substantial damages.
Weems. The hypothesis of the study is that interparental violence, or violence that occurs between fathers and mothers, has an associated set of outcomes on children who are witness to this violence, causing them to either internalize or externalize either emotional or behavioral problems.
In order to meet this demand, a whole new job role has emerged – that of a medication technician or medication aide. In order to become a medication technician, a short training course along with a test certification is mandatory according to state laws
The overall purpose of this book would rather be to educate ordinary people on the processes involving government & non-government foundations, companies, organizations or NGOs with regard to how they obtain funds from the
However, clinical categorization of fetal development result into stages based on the trimester, which is divided into three each comprising of 3 months each.
During the first few weeks following implantation of the
Initially, it was the governments that were taking the initiative of spearheading development in a country. During those times, there were few economic challenges. However, in the meantime, the world has become dynamic. For instance, challenges
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic The Development of diazepam as an anxiolytic for FREE!