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14 pages (3514 words), Download 9
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The whole experiment has been risk assessed to ensure complete safety in the laboratory during the process of this experiment.

Experiment 4:Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone (Aldol Reaction)

4 pages (1004 words), Download 2
The reaction involves an aldol condensation reaction between the two reactants in presence of a basic catalyst, NaOH. Aldol condensation proceeds via an addition reaction between an aldehyde and a ketone, resulting in the formation of an aldol. The aldol product undergoes dehydration to give an enone product.

What effect does the brightness of light have on the growth rate of a plant?

4 pages (1004 words), Download 2
Introduction Plants are important in the continuing existence of life, as it provides food for animals. What is interesting about plants is that they make their own food, and factors that may affect this can understandably deplete resources for the other functions of the plant, such as growth.

Properties of Gases

7 pages (1757 words), Download 2
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Zinc metal and dilute hydrochloric acid are the preferred reagents for the production of hydrogen gas in the laboratory (Hill, Graham, and John 25). The reaction between zinc metal and dilute hydrochloric acid is as follows: Zn(s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)


3 pages (753 words), Download 2
No matter how the transformation or change is generated or produced, the voltage will be produced because of the transforming or changing magnetic field strength, moving a magnet away or towards the coil. 2. What is a galvanic cell and how does it work? Galvanic cells collect the electrical energy present from the electron transmission in a redox response or reaction to carry out an important electrical work.

CV personal statement with 2 page to answer

4 pages (1004 words), Download 2
A) The sequence of these metabolites during glycolysis in yeast. Acidic conditions: glucose ? fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate ? 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ? 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate ?

Case study on Biochemistry

4 pages (1004 words), Download 2
When the cycle is incomplete, and the product is not formed, the function of the organism cannot properly take place. Without enzymes, the reactions needed for biological processes of the body would take at a slower rate or fail to take place.

Influence of Drilling Fluid on oil Recovery in Homogenous Reservoirs

11 pages (2761 words), Download 1
Mining industries around the globe are under constant scrutiny as far as the treatment of contaminated water is concerned. There is mounting pressure for mining industries to adopt effective and advanced methods that are environmentally sustainable. Water management has often been the most challenging, as well as long term environmental liability.

The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids

10 pages (2510 words), Download 1
Cylindrospermopsin is regarded as an important algae toxin which has been associated with contamination of surface water. CYN is chemically classified as a trycyclic alkaloid composed of a trycyclic guanidine moiety joined with hydroxymethyluracil (Masten 2000).


12 pages (3012 words), Download 1
(Herzberg, 1934). Over the past twenty five years significant increase in data regarding singlet oxygen has led to the recognition of its importance in organic chemistry, biochemistry and medicine. Singlet oxygen is an extremely reactive, nonradical, electrophilic molecule.

Customer Satisfaction and service quality in the Mobile Telecommunication Industry: A Case Study of MTN Nigeria

10 pages (2510 words), Download 1
Customer satisfaction describes the situation where the total percentage of people using a product expresses satisfaction to a certain product. Previous research has shown that customer’s attitudes have changed over the years with customers becoming more demanding and less tolerant in their expectations.

Compressed Hydrogen Production Via Reaction Between Liquid Ammonia And Alkali Metal Hydride

3 pages (753 words), Download 1
There are many methods that can lead to formation or production of hydrogen. The interest in this scope is the compressed form of hydrogen, otherwise known as liquid hydrogen. Ammonia .NH3 is recognized as one of the attractive hydrogen H2 carriers because it has a high hydrogen content of 18% mass and it is easily liquefied under about 1 MPa of pressure at a room temperature.

Chemistry and Computer Science

3 pages (753 words), Download 1
Moreover our cars and power generation units convert chemical energy in fuel to a more useable form. Chemistry has a deep relation to the computers and computer technology. The way we moved towards the more energy efficient electrical and electronic products depicts that generation after generation, the knowledge about the utilization of chemistry enhanced in huge amount.

A harmful impact of acid rain

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
: Acid Rain “Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems” (Liu et al). When rain water consists of excessive acid content, we call it as acid rain. The development of industries, power plants and the increased use of automobiles have polluted the atmosphere immensely and as a result of that the normal structure of the atmosphere has been changed a lot.

The use of free radicals in the treatment of disease

8 pages (2008 words), Download 0
A free radical can be defined as a particle with at least one unpaired electron occupying the outermost shell, capable to exist independently (Karlsson, 1997). In other words, there is at least one electron without a pair. The presence of unpaired electrons usually makes free radicals highly reactive.

Mass Spectrospcopy

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
The positive components that result from this electron bombardment are then accelerated into a vacuum through a magnetic field. It is in this magnetic field that the components are eventually sorted on the basis of mass to charge ratio. Because a majority of the ions produced in the mass spectrometers are positively charged, they are cations; these ions tend to carry an overall unit positive charge.

Analytical technique: Mass spectrometry

6 pages (1506 words), Download 0
Theories There are three important steps in mass spectrometry. First, the compound is converted into cations by loss of an electron. These ions are produced by driving a high energy beam of electrons, which displaces the electrons from the compound. Sometimes, cations split further into neutral fragments and smaller cations.

Processing-structure-property relationships in (TPE-E) nanocomposites

7 pages (1757 words), Download 0
The many improvements in materials properties include electrical conductivity, toughness, optical properties, shear and bulk modulus, film scratch resistance, yield strength and many more. The addition of nanofillers such as carbon black to rubbery polymers has a great effect upon the properties of such materials and only very small amounts of nanoparticles are dispersed in the polymer matrix (Dzenis 2004).

Human Toxic Chemical Hazard And Risk Assessment

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
According to Cornell University, department of animal science, the toxic chemical is produced by certain foods or feeds. These mycotoxins are the most studied of all toxins in the world, and known to cause diseases such as aflatoxicosis. The occurrence of this toxin is greatly influenced by the environmental factors, thus its contamination varies depending on the geographic location, agricultural practices and the susceptibility of the food substances to fungal infections during the pre-harvest, harvest and storage times.

Ecosystem Toxic Chemical Threat

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
According to World Meteorological Organization, there was almost a 30% increase in the Earth’s atmosphere in a span of two decades. It is important to discuss this greenhouse gases and its environmental effects as most anthropomorphic activities produce these gases.

Nano-Thermal Analysis

4 pages (1004 words), Download 0
since during the manufacturing of the drug various factors such as change in temperature and moisture can alter its toxicity, actions, kinetics and dynamics as well.(Giron,2002).To understand the solid state properties and the key to efficient characterization of the compound is to formulate a strategic technique and elaborate analytical programs that enables us to understand the chemical, structural, energetic and physical states of the compound.(Lee,2003) Fundamental properties that need to be analyzed in a solid dosage form Test Method/ function Characterization Fundamental properties 1) UV spectroscopy Simple assay 2) Solubility Phase solubility/ purity 3) Melting point DSC-polymorphism

therapeutic polysacchraides

9 pages (2259 words), Download 0
In simple terms, it can be said that sugars, starches, cellulose and several other compounds present in the living organisms are carbohydrates. These compounds are classified based on their chemical structure into monosaccharides, disaccharide, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (Zamora, 2011).

Heat and the Kinetic theory of matter

4 pages (1004 words), Download 0
In the latter literature presented therein, we would fundamentally look into various methods and definitions employed to exactly what heat and temperature are with regards to the kinetic theory of matter and how they particularly influence this law.


5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
They are released from oil leakages, industrial emissions, motor vehicles among other sources. The emission of dioxins is viewed as a main environmental impact of the combustion process. This paper identifies dioxins as toxic compounds and shows the physical and chemical properties of dioxins and impact of dioxin emissions on public health and environment.

Low density polyethylene

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
ICI had employed the process of autoclave when they first commercialized the process in 1938. The tubular process was first invented by BASF in 1938 though it took another 15 years to commercialize the production processes. Cost reduction and product enhancement has been the goal of each manufacturer over the years.

Electric Powered Vehicles vs. Gasoline Powered

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There is not a single category of cars manufactured by the automobile manufacturing companies; rather they are categorized into many types based on mechanical specifications, shape, performance, and size. Apart from difference in brands, there also exist some differences in the types of cars.

Altering the Caloric/Fat Content of Food

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The caloric content of food is thus altered through the use of heat in a series of reactions. The reactions that occur can either release amount of heat or can absorb it in form of energy (Kotz, Treichel & Townsend 214). Furthermore, this event can cause the matter to change in form from one state by either melting to boiling.

Chemical andsedimentary processes in acidic saline lakes and their significancefor Martian geology.

23 pages (5773 words), Download 0
These data are useful in finding out whether another planet such as Mars has hosted life, or water bodies on its surface or underground. Correlations between a terrestrial lake and the geology of Mars are useful for forming analogs, and for understanding further about the other planet.


6 pages (1506 words), Download 0
Strong covalent and hydrogen bonds join the atoms within their structures. Carbohydrates comprise of a wide range of substances broadly distributed and available in nature. In plants, carbohydrates account to over 75% of the dry weight, which is mainly in form of lignin, cellulose and starch (Pigman, 63).

Component of chromium

6 pages (1506 words), Download 0
It has been known by human since 1790’s found in mineral crocoite (PbCrO4). Its name is derived from Greek word “Chromos” meaning color, because of many beautifully colored compound and complexes it form. Chromium (0) is lustrous, shiny and hard metal.

Design, synthesis and pharmacological tests of leukotrienes A4 hydrolase inhibitors as a potential targets of interest in cancer

34 pages (8534 words), Download 0
Test in vitro all the synthesized resveratrol derivatives to prove their efficiency as LTA4 hydrolase inhibitors and as novel, promising molecules in cancer treatment. Experimental section General information Flash chromatography was performed using Merck silica gel 60 (230-400 mesh) NMR spectra were obtained at 400 MHz (H1), Bruker AV500 NMR spectrometer in CDCl3.

The function and mechanism of AlkB.

4 pages (1004 words), Download 0
Investigations on crystal structure and mechanism of AlkB have involved the use of both native and recombinant protein. Recombinant enzyme, entire as well as truncated form is produced through homologous expression; the former cloned in pET21b vector and expressed in BL21 (DES) competent cells; while the latter cloned in pET30a vector and expressed in BL21 competent cells.

Basic concepts of chemical bonding

3 pages (753 words), Download 0
The discovery of fuel cells in 1839 by Sir William Groves has contributed to the use of a more environmental friendly device (Sorensen 34). Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that generate energy through chemical reactions. They utilize elementary oxygen and hydrogen to generate energy.

The second part X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Powder X-ray

14 pages (3514 words), Download 0
The second part X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Powder X-ray. Powder X-ray diffraction is among the primary methods, which are used by solid-state chemists and mineralogists to examine physic-chemical build-up of solids, which are unknown to them. The data is denoted in a group of single-phase X-ray powder diffraction forms of three strong D values in table form (Khan 24).

Acid base and redox titration of vitamin C.

7 pages (1757 words), Download 0
Using both redox reaction between vitamin C extract and iodine solution, and vitamin C extract and sodium hydroxide solution, the experiment will carry out titration reactions and apply stoichiometry concepts to determine the percentage of vitamin C in a tablet.

Chemistry and the Environment

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(1) Describe the general properties of the atmosphere known as troposphere, stratosphere and the ionosphere. Describe the composition of unpolluted air at sea level. The unpolluted air or atmosphere at sea level is chiefly made of gases kept in place by the effect of Earth’s gravity at an average temperature of about 14 C.

supramolecular polymer based on hydrogen bonding

12 pages (3012 words), Download 0
Because of the reversible interactions, these polymers can thermally equilibrate with their monomers, unlike conventional polymers (Jadzyn et al. 2006). These polymers are responsive to external stimuli. The mechanical properties of these polymers respond strongly to changes in solvent or temperature because of their reversible interactions, and so, they are in continuous equilibrium with their environment (Cate et al.

electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system

5 pages (1255 words), Download 0
Composition of intracellular fluid remains relatively stable as compared to the extracellular fluid. This is due to the fact that ECF has to interface with the changes in the external environment therefore modifications in its constituents are inevitable.

How Gas Laws Apply In the Health Care Industry?

12 pages (3012 words), Download 0
Gas laws play a significant role in everyday life. The laws have a significant influence on the lives of living organisms. The atmospheric pressure, respiratory system of living organisms, etc all work according to the ideas detailed in the gas laws. Under an uncontrollable condition, gas a high-pressurized gas can be as dangerous as a nothing in the world.

The effects of alcohol abuse or binge drinking on a diagnotic imaging department

24 pages (6024 words), Download 0
fects on the functioning of a hospital department. Directly, intoxicated patients may be difficult to manage or intoxication may confound some of the results obtained. Indirectly, workload may be increased as alcohol contributes to the prevalence of injuries.

Drug profile

8 pages (2008 words), Download 0
It is also is available in the form of 2.5 or 5 single dose nebuliser solution. Brand names for such are Asmoluni-dose, GenRx Salbutamol, Butamol 2.5, Pharmacor Salbutamol, Salbutamol Sandoz, Salbutamol GA, VentolinNebules, and Salbutamol Sulfate. CFC-free oral free inhalers are available as Asmol CFC-free, Ventolin CFC-Free, Airomir and AiromirAutohaler (with breath actuated device), and APO Salbutamol inhaler.

Cylyndrospermospis (CYN) Algae

20 pages (5020 words), Download 0
Such toxicity hazards from seafood are recognized internationally when they are from marine algae (diatoms and dinoflagellates), but nowadays few risk assessments for Cylindrospermopsin in seafood have been conducted. This paper estimates the risk from Cylindrospermopsin contaminated seafood, and provides strategies for safe human consumption.

Nuclear Power: Pros and Cons

3 pages (753 words), Download 0
These events have unfortunately created misconceptions about nuclear power, which highlight more on perceived disadvantages than its benefits. This paper is a critical examination of nuclear energy focusing on its advantages and disadvantages in relation to other sources of energy.

E-commerce and Its Importance in Business

12 pages (3012 words), Download 0
Almost, all the sectors including finance, retail and communication segments of businesses are enormously being affected by e-commerce activities. In other words, it can broadly be stated that e-commerce has dramatically changed the business modes by a significant level.

Thermoplastic Copolyester nancomposites for biomedical applications

6 pages (1506 words), Download 0
Nanocomposites are polymers containing particles in the matrix that possess at least one dimension of the dispersed particles in the nanometer range (

Therapeutic polysacchraides

6 pages (1506 words), Download 0
Because of their unique composition and structure, the important role that polysaccharides will play in the future of research is undeniable. On a fundamental level, polyssarcharides are defined as polymeric chains composed of mono- or di-saccharides bound together by glycosidic bonds, a special type of covalent bond.

The affects of Agent orange

7 pages (1757 words), Download 0
The name comes from the orange stripe used to label the barrels containing the chemical. Comparing to other “Rainbow chemicals”, Agent Orange was the most extensively used. Being a herbicide, the compound was employed in the United States, Korea, Canada, Australia and Brazil (Hay 151).

Research Methodology - Research Findings of Etisalat Telecorporation and the result

12 pages (3012 words), Download 0
Emirates Telecommunications Corporation – Etisalat has adopted as a strategy of outsourcing information technology in order to gain competitive edged in the telecommunications market in UAE and the Middle-East. A research study has been carried out to find the relationship of outsourcing of IT adopted as a strategic initiative and the profitability and sustainability of Emirates Telecommunications Corporation – Etisalatm (Henry, 2008, p.17).

Electroanalytical Technique (Voltammetric techniques) critical review

8 pages (2008 words), Download 0
Electrochemistry entails association of electrical properties and chemical substances in a reaction. Electrical properties commonly measured include conductance, resistance, current and voltage.

Analysis of Galanin Using Mass Spectrometry

7 pages (1757 words), Download 0
Analysis of Galanin Using Mass Spectrometry Introduction Galanin is known to play an important role in the regulation of food intake. Poritsanos et al. (2009) report that it affects the central nervous system. They carried out studies on the relationship between obesity and the levels of galanin in the serum.
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