A great amount of interchangeability does not exist because of specific inhibitory actions towards bacteria, or molds or yeasts.
Although microbes may not be avoided in non-sterile preparations, attempts are made to ensure that potentially pathogenic microbes are absent. The presence and subsequent growth of microbes may lead to many chemical changes and loss of quality of food preparations, pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. The potential for this loss of quality may occur at any of the many stages between acquisition of the raw material and eventual consumption of the finished product.
The history of chemical and physical preservation is closely associated with the history and development of antimicrobial agents. Since the ancient times a scientific basis of antisepsis, disinfection and preservation has evolved over the last 150-160 years. Modern research brings to light that the use of preservatives has not been an alien concept to mankind in history. For centuries, preservatives, in the natural form, have been used in the pickling process, development of dyes and colors, prevention of microbial action on wounds, perishable goods such as vegetables, dairy etc. The Native Americans even relied on the use of adding bacteria the drying process1 .The most amazing and innovative use of preserving agents was exhibited by the Egyptians in the mummification process of the dead bodies of the rulers. The use of oils and resins to quicken or slow down the decaying process were used to best effect by the Egyptian Civilization.
Nowadays, food preservation has dramatically reduced, Combination of preservatives may reduce overall concentration of a preservative and natural preservative system could replace the classical ones to minimize the adverse effects.
It is the simplest acid of aromatic series. It is permitted as a preservative in food-stuffs, drugs and cosmetics as sodium or potassium salt of benzoic acid. It is