All these come with occupational health and safety challenges. This article will explore the occupational health and safety challenges faced by rapidly developing cities with similar to Metropolis’ and explain a hazard and risk assessment plan that would enable these cities prepare for the public health risks that come with the exposure to environmental chemicals.
Land contamination involves a wide array of conditions defined in the Environmental Protection Act (Environment Agency, 2010). The UK has had a long and varied industrial history and some of the industries that have been active at one time or the other being viewed as potential land pollutants. Much of the UK’s industrial activity, especially in the heavy industry sectors of iron and steel manufacture, chemical production and coal extraction took place before the modern systems of environmental pollution controls had been put in place. It was not until 1990 that the UK enacted a law to control land contamination (Hester et al., 2001).
Metropolis faced several hazards resulting from land pollution from its former textile, coal and steel industries. Most of the land pollution that arose from the textile industry was as a result of the numerous chemical processes that raw materials pass through before turning into fabric. The textile industry processes such as dyeing, bleaching, printing, mercerization, scouring, sizing and washing require large volumes of water and result in equally large amounts of waste water which when released into the environment can cause land pollution (Darby, 1973). The waste water can not only contaminate ground water but can also interfere with the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.
The waste generated from textile industries can be broadly categorized into four groups namely the toxic or hazardous wastes, high volume wastes, dispersible wastes and the difficult to treat wastes. The difficult to treat wastes are