It is transmitted to humans from the wild rodents by fleas that form the intermediate carrier. However in the latter part of the twentieth century, there have been some speculations as to whether this Black Death was caused by only bubonic plague, or were there some other explanations (as for example, some researchers claim that it may have been a viral hemorrhagic fever that killed so many) for this deadly and sudden pandemic, that had once threatened to wipe out the entire European population. However, most historians and scientists are of the view that, it was indeed the bubonic plague along with its variations, which caused Black Death. The effect of this disaster was so great that it took almost 150 years for the affected countries to recover and it created such a great upheaval that it led to a certain changes in the socio-political, religious and economic picture of Europe. This black plague kept on rearing its ugly head at different times, killing in large
numbers each time it appeared in Europe. Finally it was only in the nineteenth century that this epidemic disappeared completely, from the European soil. This article will examine the infamous calamitous episode, known in history as the Black Death, and will explore the probable causes that led to it, and will study the various effects that this devastating pandemic had on the entire socio-political fabric of Europe during the middle ages.
History of plague: Even before it left its indelible mark as the Black Death, bubonic plague was known to human civilization. As early as in the sixth and seventh century (541-544 A.D.), there were confirmed reports of this disease which is known as the Justinian plague, as it had occurred during the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian (527- 565A.D.). Even then, its effects were quite devastating, and was said to have killed around 300,000 people in Constantinople itself, with some reports even claiming that there were 5000-10000 deaths in the