Statistical analysis in science is a tool that puts a numeric value to the “thing” being tested, it does not prove the validity of the actual science. The empirical study of fingerprints has taken place over the past 100 years and has proven that fingerprints are unique and individual. From the critical perspective, fingerprint comparison and identification methodology remains reliable and valid as scientific evidence and to this day has yet to be considered inadmissible as evidence in a court of law.
Fingerprints are developed while the fetus is still in the womb. The friction ridge detail begins to develop on the hands and feet of a fetus during the 12th or 13th weeks of pregnancy (Ashbaugh, 1999, p.54). These “ridges do not run from one side of the hand or the finger to the other in a continuous stream, but are broken and noncontinuous. The arrangement of these ridges, like all natural things, is unique” (McRoberts, 1994, p.l). From the scientific perspective, early pioneers in fingerprint history are considered Sir William J. Herschel and Dr. Henry Faulds. Herschel is actually credited for “being the first European to recognize the value of friction ridge prints and to actually use them for identification purposes” (Aushbaugh, 1999, p.21). However, Alphonse Bertillon in Paris, France was first to devise the first truly scientific method of criminal identification, called anthropometry or Bertillonage. Bertillon “included fingerprints on the rear of his anthropometric cards as a final check of his identification. Upon Bertillon’s death in 1914, Bertillonage was discarded in France and replaced by fingerprint identification” (Ashbaugh, 1999, p. 28). In 1893, fingerprinting was added to the files at Scotland Yard, but anthropometry was still considered the primary method of identification until 1901. Sir Francis Galton, a British scientist, through testimony and demonstrations, was able to ...
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Today, crime rates have soared in both index and property crimes resulting from poverty, drug addiction and social pressures. The public wants their local government officials to exert all efforts to protect them and make their neighborhoods safe from these criminals.
Name Institution Course Instructor Date DNA Fingerprinting Abstract DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory procedure that has proved very useful in personal identification. With its wide applications, it is causing a revolution in the modern world. Typing of DNA presents unique profiles for each individual except identical twins.
The technology used to ascertain genetic fingerprints varies, but predominantly relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is explored in some depth here. Although there are problems with genetic fingerprinting, this paper finds that the usage of the technology in these situations is incredible useful and one of the more reliable forensic techniques.
But is fingerprint identification a real science this is the controversy that is going to be addressed in this paper.
Not before long, fingerprints were taken by the traditional method of ink and paper impression, but nowadays with the advanced technology its enough to do a computer scan to record such a print which will be saved in the system to be retrieved and easily cross referenced for future use.
Fingerprint databases are still turned to frequently by police and investigators.
Each fingerprint is unique. That is why it can be so effective as evidence. They are often left inadvertently and can show what a person has done and where
It can differentiate plants from different species, families, and genera’s and from variety of cultivations. The DNA fingerprinting technique is basically employed to determine the genetic identity of the
Every strand is composed of nucleotides, a sequence of bases. A base can be one of the four chemicals, adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine. The two DNA strands are connected to every base. Bases can only bond with each other as follows: Guanine (G) can only bond
In instances where the available sample is small for the process of fingerprinting, then the sample is augmented through a process called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is the process of DNA replication that does not use
A fingerprint bank would allow for security officials to have a check on fingerprints gathered at a crime scene, for example.
In the real world, fingerprinting can assist in verification purposes. For example, banks and companies can have scanners
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