.whether or not a child is capable of giving the necessary consent will depend on the child’s maturity and understanding and the nature of the consent required. The child must be capable of making a reasonable assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment…
ic Health Nurses in schools the impact of this vaccine delivery has been enormous both in terms of increased workload and the information needs of both children and parents. This vaccination programme has also opened something of a ‘Pandora’s Box’ for those practitioners at the forefront of its administration with regard to a host of issues concerning consent and include:
Prior to the implementation of this vaccination programme no other STI vaccine had been routinely given to adolescents and the public’s knowledge and awareness of the link between HPV and cervical cancer was low. (Waller et al 2004). According to Zimet et al (2006), many healthcare workers also had limited knowledge regarding HPV, and in order for this vaccine programme to be successful, nurses’ attitudes and knowledge would be important factors. Nurses have a duty to ensure that they use the best available evidence to deliver care and particularly when they are advising people (NMC 2008)
As around 25% of adolescent girls in the UK become sexually active before the age of 16 (Wellings et al 2001), the issue of girls under 16 consenting for this vaccine is an important one if it is to reach the target group.
Consent for treatment is based on the ethical principle of autonomy or the right to self determination in which an individual is allowed to act upon decisions and choices. (Purtillo, 2005) In Scotland a young person under the age of 16 is deemed to have the legal capacity to consent to medical treatment under the terms of the Legal Capacity (Scotland) Act 1991 if, in the opinion of the health care professional involved, he or she is capable of understanding the treatment and its consequences. The authors’ experience of the vaccination programme since its inception however, has demonstrated that whilst the law appears to be very clear, it has become something of a grey area with regard to issues of consent for both children and their parents. It is these issues that the author ...
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Introduction The issue of ethics is fundamental in all the profit and not-for-profit organizations. It is applicable in medical practice, business, social institutions, and at the various other workplaces. Attempts have been made to develop codes of conduct that protect the rights of workers in various organizations (Egels-Zanden &Hyllman, 2007, p.2).
In most cases, the body’s immune system can clear HPV on its own. However, at times the HPV fails to clear leading to the formation of genital warts and cervical cancer and other cancers of the anus, oropharynx, penis, vulva and vagina. The introduction of the HPV vaccine aims at protecting males and females against the common strains of HPV that cause disease and cancer.
About risks and reimbursement to the person's participation or no contribution that they have the right to extract without punishment at any time. For consent to treatment, alternative treatments and their risks and benefits are to be mentioned.
The presence of an institution wide review body for research (also called institutional, ethics or human subject protection review board) and guidelines of its composition and functions are mandated.
With the help of vaccines, this disease is completely eridicated and there is no outbreaks that occurred after the last occurrence in 1977 in Somania. However, after the 9/11 attacks it is feared that smallpox viruses could be used as biological weapons if it reaches the hands of anti-social elements.
Since the review process itself is synonymous with the overall research strategy it is good to remember that, as such, it is necessary to conduct it efficaciously so that it can act both as a stand-alone as well as a complementary process of the entire research process.
government and other related health care authorities should study and consider the need to make HPV vaccination mandatory among the school-age children.
After discussing the target audiences and the main
tives of this paper are: (1) to identify selected issues pertaining to racism in schools; (2) to seek alternative solutions to the selected issues or problems identified; and (3) to find out who would benefit from the suggested solutions.
Racism is not new to our society. It
Of these, over 40 can infect the reproductive areas of both genders, and can readily spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.2 Furthermore, at least 13 of them can be
If the vaccine is universally recommended by a governing body, it removes the social stigma that is associated with the vaccine, wherein girls and women receiving the vaccine may be considered as being engaged in risky sexual behavior when compared to
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