Porter and Lawler’s theoretical model on individual motivation is largely based on this theory, and identifies expectancy, instrumentality and valence as the critical elements of motivation. These elements are related to extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors which include praise, recognition, incentives, etc and intrinsic factors are associated with an individual’s psychological values associated with work, leaders and the self (Isaac, Zerbe & Pitt, 2001).
This theory has been expressed through the MARS model by McShane and Glinow (2006, 2008) who describes individual behavior as a resultant of motivation, ability, role-perception and situational factors. Motivational activities at Verizon may be related to the critical elements of expectancy theory and heed to individuals’ material motivation in the form of external compensation and benefits; achievement motivation through internal rewards and recognition, and emotional motivation through a great work place for the employees. These in turn influence individual performance shaped by extensive training involving simulation, classroom instruction, and on-the-job training that define individuals’ role-perception, create ability and cover situational factors such as product knowledge, soft skills, time and budget, facilities etc (McShane & Glinow, 2008). Verizon’s training plays a significant role in attaining high customer satisfaction scores (Noe, 2008).
McShane and Glinow quote, “people rely on their ethical values do determine ‘the right thing to do’” (2006, p.33). For this, they attribute utilitarianism, individual rights, and distributive justice as the main requirements to foster ethics in organization (2006, 2008). At an organizational level, its culture is one of the main spheres where business ethics can have a significant impact on organizational