Over the years, significant mandates have been put forth in relation to employment, persons with disabilities, water and air pollution, and equal opportunities in education.
The debate on mandates have been long-standing historically primarily due to the implied fiscal responsibilities impinged on local districts. Redistribution of state funds becomes necessary to allocate budget for federal mandates. There are other non-fiscal consequences of mandates as well. With federal mandates, a generic solution is provided for highly sensitive issues underplaying the diversity factor in each state or locality. “The initiative of state and local governments to pioneer innovative approaches is undermined as a result” (Posner, 1998, p. 6). However, despite these continuing issues, mandates have proven resilient since inception, and policy makers [i.e. Congress] remain positive on their position in creating federal mandates.
The first major wave of federal mandates happened between 1960’s and 1970’s which included essential issues such as environment, civil rights, and education (Posner, 1998). Specifically, in the mid-1960’s, the state government increased its authority and intervention in education. As pointed out by Fusarelli (2009), “a crucial reason for a fundamental shift in the state education role is the widespread loss of confidence in local educators and their communities” (p. ix). In 1983, the loss of confidence in local education revolved around children with special needs. In recent times, the No Child Left Behind Policy (NCLB) became the driving force behind an increase in the state-mandated laws in education.
Perhaps one of the more formidable issues emphasized by individuals advocating against state-mandated laws, especially in education, is funding. Most, if not all, mandates come with price tags that become additional budgetary burdens for local districts. Sink (2010) borrows the
As reiterated by Posner (1998) it “covers several distinctly different tools used to regulate states and localities” (p. 4). In the United States,…
The author states that through marketing research the business manager can both identify potential opportunities and also can effectively monitor existing sales to render needed changes. The development of internet technology has helped the market research firms to gain potential information both related to primary and secondary data.
Many questions dwell in the mind of an individual when we look at how products were bring about by the companies and did not go on in the industry and why it happened. Many highly innovative products were not known to consumers and thus failed with time. The question arises then why the products were not well known to the consumers?
History has shown that nations like, U.K., have adopted the mixed economic system, thereby achieving substantial growth since Industrial Revolution. Economists believe that competition in the market maximizes the value of the net social welfare in country.
This is in the sense that space and ambience of the structure holding the wall or permanent structure for the painting has to be incorporated into the painting. There are variations to mural types because some can be pseudo-murals in the sense that the pictures or paintings are created on another medium other than the wall then attached or pasted onto the permanent surface.
ld Collapse, in Willow Island, West Virginia in April 1978, where premature loading of cast-in-place concrete resulted in loss of life for 51 construction workers and the Rosemont Horizon Arena, Chicago in august 1979, where Glue-laminated timber roof arches spanning 89 metres
The products of a beverage industry are grouped into two categories alcoholic (beer, wine) and non-alcoholic (carbonated soft drinks, juice). In the recent past the beverage industry has witnessed new challenges and opportunities. However the non alcoholic or the soft drink sector has been witnessing higher growths in the emerging markets.
In line with Seymour Sarason, the history of educational change is replete with disappointment and failure in respect to attaining planned goals and implementing fresh thoughts. Since the 1960s, education has undergone several phases of
teaching, as they may perceive technology to be a small part of the teaching process and do not feel that teachers must essentially possess this skill (Knezek & Christensen, 2002).
However, with the onset of the era of information technology, a lot of educational material is