From a nursing perspective, a more responsible role for nursing professionals in the dissemination of information on the diagnosis of prostate cancer and its implications is a development of the late twentieth century. This increased caring role of the nursing professionals with patients diagnosed with prostate cancer also carries the implication of better knowledge of the disease and the treatment modalities, to be efficient in providing the required care quality (Davison et al, 2009, p.95).
Prostate cancer is cancer occurring in the prostate gland. The presence of a cancer tumor in the prostate gland will result in enlargement of the prostate gland, which is responsible for the symptoms associated with the lower urinary tract displayed in those having the disease. In essence, the demonstration of these symptoms from an enlarged prostate results from the impact of the resistance to the flow of urine by the enlarged prostate and the response of the urinary bladder. The symptoms include nocturia, frequent urination in the daytime, hesitancy, and the requirement of strain to push the urine out or maintain the force of urine; intermittency; and the desire to void again shortly after urinating. These symptoms are not definite indicators of the disease, as for instance, it may be the result of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Ellsworth 2009, p.5). In addition, these symptoms are also seen in the general population, and as such are not sensitive or specific enough to be used for a diagnosis of prostate cancer. This lack of specific symptoms has placed the emphasis on the screening methods of digital rectal examination and determining the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to assist in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (Strief, 2007, p.476).
There is no evidence to suggest that prostate cancer occurs from any specific and modifiable life styles of the male population. However, evidence points to three major risk