Now, with the help of media, live broadcasts have become very famous among people from all walks of life. Mass communication and mass media came into existence and became popular by the end of 19th century. Examples would be; print media, cigarette cards, cinema newsreel, radio and the latest television era. Then came the tabloid revolution, new men’s magazines, advertising and electronic media like satellites.
In the era of print media, social commentators played an important role, new guides and sports magazines began to be published and ‘graphic revolution’ of 1961 as referred to as by Boorstin. Pulitzer established the first ‘sports department’ in New York Times in1883 (McChesney 1989: 53). Sports news has been dominated by national newspapers and has outsourced multi sports magazines (Horne, 1992). As for the cigarette cards; they were invented in France. Cinema brought movement and hence sporting action to the audience for the first time (Aldgate 1979: 17). In Britain, the first cinema performance held in public was in 1896, and there came into being around 4000-5,000 cinemas by 1914.
Radio had its own advantages. It was a medium that provided listeners with immediacy. 1922 is the year when this happened in the UK and thus British Broadcasting Corporation was formed. After the formation of BBC in 1927, sport broadcasts became a well known element in the schedules (see Whannel 1992). Next development was in the form of the television; which was established in the 1930s but received more recognition in the 1950s to 1970s. By 1965, BBC had established Sportsview (1954), Grandstand (1958) and Match of the Day (1962) as regular programmes, ITV had launched World of Sport, and in the USA, ABC Sport had launched Wide World of Sport, with its subtitle "the thrill of victory, the agony of defeat", and adopted its slogan "up close and personal" (Powers 1984: 118-21). These developments transformed the nature of sport stardom. Stars and
However, there was no television, computers and as many published papers before the 1950s as today. Back in those days sports news was given less interest to than literature, magazines, cinema,…
In the very recent article in reputable Washington Post, former ambassador to NATO Kurt Volker suggests that “attending the 2014 Olympics under today’s circumstances” equals to “cementing in practice Russia’s changing European borders by force”. Contemporary athletes become ambassadors of political regimes and representatives of national culture.
Sports directly influence the wellbeing of economies on a global level: "sports, indeed, constitute a major part of the US economy: the expenditures in 1998 for commercial sports totaled $17.7 billion and an additional $21.4 billion was spent on physical fitness, golf, bowling, and sports and recreation clubs." (Washington, R., Karen, D.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the following: International transmission, diffusion, and transformation of sport; Contribution of theories of internationalization and globalization to the understanding of international sport; Inter-relationships between sport and international politics; Role of international media and other corporations in international sports development
o reinforce the element of maleness in sport, which has increasingly seen major transformations with the advent of other ‘creative’ and ‘feminine’ sports into the male domain, with a view to reinforce ‘true manliness’ into the social and cultural spheres.
The researchers conducted a systemic analysis of newspapers that covered crime and race in sports news (Mastro, Bleacha & Seate, 2011). The researchers used a social identity strategy that incorporated insights from framing. According to the
The story goes on when the lady is coached and is only allowed to play football internationally when she is within the traditional bond of engagement and has a scholarship in hand.
While the movie was progressive in many areas, like education and
exhibited by American Indian students pertinent to their interpretation of the American Indian mascots; which apparently were considered detrimental since “they remind American Indians of the limited ways others see them and, in this way, constrain how they can see
For example, the media is responsible for reporting on the various matches that would take place, the results of these matches, the venues, and the ticket costs. This information is very useful, and this mainly because it would help in attracting
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