More than half of them were born in the United Kingdom having such ethnic backgrounds as Turkish, Arab, Indian, Asian, Kurdish, and Pakistani. Muslims coming to live in France are usually from francophone countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco (Castles and Miller, 2003). Finally, Germany has many Muslims with Turkish and Kurdish origin.
Since the number of Muslims living in Western Europe and the United States continue to grow and more and more people become converted into Islam religion, anti-Muslim sentiments and movements started growing across Europe when Muslims have become the main focus of official efforts to exclude them as “others” from the states of Europe. The main reason for such actions is the fear of a ‘Muslim invasion’ when European national identities can be threatened by the ongoing processes of European integration and immigration from the developing countries (Ferrera, 2005). While in the past immigration rules were less restricted for certain countries, they became tougher recently due to the increased number of immigrants living on the unemployment compensation from the government, which raises concerns and complaints from the citizens who work hard and pay taxes. Even if immigrants find a job, the employers pay much less salaries and wages for them than for national citizens. So, it shifts preferences for employment toward immigrants. In such a way, socially excluded “national” citizens compete with socially excluded ethnic minorities or immigrant ‘others’ for limited national resources of welfare (Castles and Miller, 2003). Such current situation in the Western European countries can be associated with a “social regression” or a “social crisis” in addition to a growing political and cultural crisis based on the established national identities. In such a way, recently there is a strong tendency to exclude Muslim immigrant “others” out of the European countries to make it “nationally pure”