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Pain Management in Cardiac Surgery
Pages 16 (4016 words)
Pain Management in Cardiac Surgery Over the last years of medical advancement, significant improvements in assessment and management of surgical pain had been made. There has been an escalation in effectiveness of pain management as well as quality supporting literatures available.
Overview of Pain and its Management Pain is a subjective and relatively complex perception that indicates presence or occurrence of tissue damage in the human body. It is the body’s natural response to infection or injury to signal the person that something is damaged in the system (Definition and Types of Pain, 2012). Nociception is the process involved in pain perception where stimuli from potential tissue damage are transmitted through peripheral and central nervous systems (Portenoy and Brennan, 1994). Stimulus begins in the detection of either mechanical, thermal or chemical changes in the pain receptors, also known as nociceptors, which is activated when the source is above the threshold of the person. The stimulus will then be transmitted along the spinal cord to the brain and in turn will trigger autonomic reaction of a subjective painful sensation (Clement, et al., 2000). Pain is necessary in recognition and diagnosis of health problems that may be acute or chronic. Acute and chronic pain differs in the onset and duration of painful sensation. Acute pain such as after surgery, trauma, and labour usually lasts for hours, days or weeks up to less than six months time. After the underlying cause is treated, the pain subsides along with the healing process of the illness. ...
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