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Nursing - Pain Management
Pages 6 (1506 words)
[Author’s Name] [Instructor’s Name] [Course Title] [Date of Submission] Pain Management Definition of Pain Pain is an experience that is common to all animals. It is the result of certain forms of stimulation and involves complex, multidimensional processes…
Cyclooxygenases Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (commonly known as Cyclooxygenases) was purified in 1976 and cloned in 1988. This enzyme is the key catalytic protein in the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid, resulting in pain and inflammation, and is subject to inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). In 1991, several laboratories identified a second gene product with COX activity, now termed COX-2. It is clear now that both isoforms, COX-l and COX-2 are expressed in both peripheral tissues and several areas of the CNS (Prochazkova et al., 2006). Theories of Pain Gatchel, Polatin, and Kinney (1995) state that there are two prominent theories of pain: the traditional specificity theory of pain and the gate control theory of pain. The former, still widely taught, proposes that pain is a specific sensation and that the intensity of pain is proportional to the extent of tissue damage. This theory implies a fixed, straight-through transmission system from somatic pain receptors to a pain center in the brain (p.416). In 1965, Melzack and Wall proposed the gate control theory. This theory suggests that there are physiological and neural mechanisms in the body that can have an effect on the perception of the painful stimulus (Hawthorn & Redmond 2001). The theory postulates that there are two controls that affect the gate. ...
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