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POLIO INTRODUCTION Poliomyelitis is a Greek word that can be split into polio (grey) and myelon (marrow, representation of the spinal cord) (Atkinson et al., 2009). Polio is a viral disease that is caused by poliomyelitis virus on the spinal cord that in some cases ends up in lifelong paralysis or death.
The causative agent was first identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner (Paul, 1971). Even though this disease had existed for several hundreds and thousands of years, it was not until 1880s that the disease became major epidemics as it began to occur in Europe and United States (Trevelyan et al., 2005). Since then the epidemic was wide spread and only in 1950s and early 1960s was the vaccine for this disease developed and it declined rapidly in the developed nations. There are still threats of polio in Asian and African countries. CAUSITIVE AGENT: POLIOVIRUS Poliovirus belongs to the group enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. As a general understanding Enteroviruses are short-lived inhabitants in the gastrointestinal tract as they have stability in the acidic medium (Atkinson et al., 2009). The polio viruses are implanted in the pharynx and gastrointestinal tract of the infected individual. The three serotypes of the viruses are P1, P2, and P3 and there is negligible heterotypic resistance amid the three types. In other words, if a person has resistance to any one serotype, it does not mean that he/she will have significant resistance to the other serotypes. ...
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