This is based on the route, duration and time of administration of the antibiotic after susceptibility test and clinical responses. NOSOCOMIAL OR HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS Care to patients is provided in wide range of facilities ranging from highly equipped clinics to advanced public universities. Despite progress and advancement in hospital care, infections continue to prevail in hospitalized patients and even in hospital staff. Decreased immunity among the patients, variety of invasive techniques creates a kind potential route for the infections to incubate and grow in the ideal atmosphere. Poor controls for the spread of infection can also be the key factor for the stretch of infections among crowded hospital populations. Nosocomial or Hospital acquired infections can be defined as: Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections are defined as the infections acquired by patients during their stay at the hospital, who are admitted for a reason other than that infection and the infection causing agent was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This also includes those infections occurring in staff members or patients who are recently discharged from the hospitals. (Pittet ,2011) EPIDIMILOGY Nosocomial infections occur in both developed and third world countries and it is the major cause of death among hospital patients. A survey conducted by WHO in 55 hospitals of 14 countries including Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South East Asia and Western pacific. The result shows an average of 8.7% patients suffer from Hospital Acquired Infections every year. The burden of HAI is already substantial in developing countries where Nosocomial infections hit every 5 to 155 patients in regular wards and 50% patients in ICU (Vincent, Rello , Marshall, Silva, Anzueto, Martin,2009). The magnitude of the problem remains ignored or unknown because diagnosis is complex and suirvillience activities requires expertise and resources to guide interventions.(Allegranzi& pittet,2008) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Nosocomial infections can be acquired from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Endogenous sources are part of patient’s body or body sites, such as infections growing or incubating inside the body. Exogenous sources are those outside from the body. Examples include visitors, medical personnel, equipment and healthcare environment. HAI’s may be caused by patient’s own flora, the organisms harmlessly entangled with patients own body such as skin (S.Aureus) or intestine (E. coli). The infections targeting ICU patients or patients with weak immune system are those which are the victims of environment filled with the micro-organisms. These organisms usually cause lung infections. Infections may be transferred from one to another person such as Antibiotic resistant micro-organisms are likely to come from the person already infected or colonized from the organism, via the hands of health care worker or through the environment where the patient is being cared for. C.difficile is the causative agent for diarrhea and can be carried in the intestine of the patient or can be acquired from other patient already infected because C. Difficile produces spores which make it easier for their spread and also make it resistant to unfavorable conditions. The agents causing HAI are mostly viruses, bacteria’
ABSTRACT Even after provision of care to patients there is annual rise in the rate of Nosocomial Infections. These infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality and increase in cost and are common among nursing home patients. The susceptibility to infection is increased by invasive methods of treatment, deteriorating immune system, functional disability, chemotherapy or old age…
Surgical site infections can be broadly classified based on the site and extent of infection into two groups: Incisional and organ-space surgical site infections. Incisional infections are also divided into two broad categories: superficial (subcutaneous and tissue infections) and deep infections (Alvarado, 2000).
As it is stated in the case study description, the hospital has sufficient financial resources for rearranging the space, purchasing equipment, and employing additional personnel. (Swayne, Duncan and Ginter, 2008) Nevertheless, there is a lack of experienced personal expected.
The paper tells that the symptoms of this infection can be identified after 24 to 72 hours of admission of a patient to the hospital. According to an early research, about 5 percent of the hospitalized patients get infected with nosocomial infection. It is because of the use of invasive procedures that this percentage of infected patients has increased to 8 percent.
However, they are a potential source of blood stream infections (BSI). In fact, up to 20-40 percent of blood stream infections in hospitalized patients may be caused due to a CVC (NSW Health 2005). This nosocomial bacteremia is often referred to as 'line sepsis'.
The medical fraternity including doctors and other support staff are supposed to take adequate precaution while dealing with infection related issues. Infection control is considered a topical issue amongst the practitioners and the media. When the poor hygiene issues of a hospital are highlighted by the media, it results in drop in its credibility and patients try their best not to utilise the services of such hospitals.
rubs/ABHRs) to effect such practices in clinics and hospitals; professional health care workers are said to be the common starting point of nosocomial infections that abound within the actual health care situation because most of them do not conform with proper sanitation,
According to the author of the text, the reason for MRSA being a high risk and high alert pathogen is that this strain of S. aureus is resistant to antibiotics, especially beta-lactam antibiotics such as oxacillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, and methicillin. Additionally, MRSA is responsible for causing severe problems such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and surgical site infections.
It aids the human body in providing effective immune responses against agents that are a threat to the defenses of the body. It produces clotting factors required to prevent excessive internal bleeding and bleeding from the exposed injured sites.
Robotic surgery is often compared to laparoscopic surgery and can be done through smaller cuts. The surgeon often makes tiny, precise movements which are possible with the type of surgery. Robotic surgery has been approved by the food and
10 pages (2500 words)Research Paper
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