HIV and Pregnancy HIV and Pregnancy HIV and Pregnancy Human Immunodeficiency virus, first discovered in 1984, is a retrovirus transmitted in many ways, sexual transmission being the commonest. Though originally found among homosexuals, transmission is now attributed to heterosexual partners (Reynolds, 2004)…
Transmission occurs through body fluids like blood, semen, cervical or vaginal discharge and breast milk (Reynolds, 2004). Vertical transmission is thereby possible during pregnancy, labor and breast-feeding period. The gravity of the problem is indicated by the statistics which tell us that 15-20% of infants born to HIV positive women not on retro-viral treatment will be infected during the last trimester of pregnancy and more so in labor. This paper deals with the methods of managing and preventing this incurable disease being transmitted from mother to child during the pregnancy period, during labor and during the infancy period and the role of nurses in this function. The HIV has an affinity for the CD4 cells or the T helper lymphocytes which are the key role players in the body immune response (Reynolds, 2004). HIV later develops into AIDS. The symptoms of the illness are actually symptoms of the opportunistic infections, associated tumors and encephalopathy. Children born to HIV positive women may carry the antibodies for one year. They cannot be considered positive till above one year of age. The Department of Health in UK recommends an HIV test for all pregnant women so nobody can claim lack of awareness of their condition (Hawkins et al, 2005). The ethics of providing treatment for infertility had previously been questioned but now centers are reviewing their policies (Hawkins et al, 2005). Vertical transmission may be facilitated during pregnancy by malnutrition, high viral load in the first trimester, reactivated herpes simplex infection, genital infections and illicit drug use (NAM, 2004). Prevention may be targeted at these focal points to reduce the vertical transmission. Malnutrition may be prevented by ensuring that pregnant women consume sufficient nutritious food, compensating for diarrhea by more potassium-containing foods, nausea by taking small frequent meals and loss of weight by nutritional supplements (Reynolds, 2004). Mouth ulcers and candidiasis may be corrected similarly. Avoiding infection and providing timely and apt treatment would help in controlling infection. However this becomes a problem if other children are in the family. Regular blood tests like CD cell count and other tests could indicate the immune response status. Exposure to blood-borne infections like herpes simplex and cytomegalus viruses and toxoplasmosis must be noted as they could be activated again when the immunity reduces. Prophylaxis is possible by instituting anti-retroviral therapy when the CD4 count lowers from 250cells/cu.mm. Prognosis is facilitated by the three-drug HAART therapy of nevirapine, lamivudine and zidovudine (AVERT, 2002). These are avoided in the first 14 weeks as they could produce terratogenesis. Problems like drug resistance and side-effects like nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are expected. Opportunistic infections may be treated but they too produce similar side-effects and thrombocytopenia. Support may be provided to those who use illicit drugs and wean them away. The women may be given oral zidovudine in the last 26 weeks of pregnancy and intravenous zidovudine (AZT) during labor and oral AZT syrup for the infant for the first six weeks when breastfeeding is avoided (Reynolds, 2004). Bloodless Caesarian Sections could be planned for delivery. Invasive procedures need to be avoided. A difficult labor should not be permitted to happen. The doctors and staff ...
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(“HIV and Pregnancy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
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(HIV and Pregnancy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“HIV and Pregnancy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/48816-hiv-and-pregnancy.
HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. It affects all age groups and children develop the infection mainly through transmission from the infected mother during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding.
The paper discusses the issue at length stating the ways through which the United States has committed itself to ensuring that these women receive the amount of care that they deserve. There is also the review of articles both from the United States and a foreign land to understand the various aspects involved in the rather broad topic.
The infection rates among black Americans are seven times more compared to Caucasians (Nunn et al. 1). The lecture on the theology of AIDS asserts the responsibility of religious organizations in helping stem the spread of HIV/AIDS: “We may no longer speak about them and us.
This infection results to the destruction or impairment of the function of the immune system cells. With the progression of the infection, the patient’s immune system grows weaker. This creates room for vulnerability to infections. AIDS is said to be the highest stage of HIV infection since a person with HIV can take 10-15 years prior to the development of AIDS (World Health Organization, 2012).
Teenage pregnancies have become a significant issue across the globe, and the United States is among the leading nations with increased teen pregnancies. Despite the recent declines in teen birth and pregnancy rate, the United States still has the highest rates compared with other industrialized nations.
Unlike the myths around, they are diseases that can infect anyone in spite of his or her race, gender, or age. Based on the period of discovery the diseases could be traced back in Africa from where it is believed to have developed and spread. They destroy the human immune system, specifically the CD4 bearing cells (CD4+ T cells and Macrophages).
pregnancy and parenthood with the attendant lack of educational progress, the rate of aids in the African American community particularly among the African American men. “About 4 out of 10 girls in the United States will get pregnant by age 20 - about 1-million of them each