They include sensory perception, activity, skin moisture, mobility, nutritional intake, friction and shear. Each subscale measures the capability of the patient that cause high intensity and duration of pressure, or low tissue tolerance (Braden, 2009). Low Braden score shows that the patient has a low level of functioning; hence, high level of risk of developing a pressure ulcer.
The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk was developed by Nancy Bergstrom and Barbara Braden, in 1987, and it has been in use since then (Braden, 2009). The aim of this tool is to help health professionals such as nurses and other health care givers to assess a patient’s risk of developing pressure ulcers. Braden scale measures the functional capabilities of the patient that cause lower tissue tolerance for pressure or high intensity and duration of pressure (Statts and Gunningberg, 2007). It is used with patients of all ages, as well as settings, and it is considered more accurate than other scales like the Waterlow and the Norton scales or clinical judgment are.
The Braden scale consists of up to six subscales scored from 1-4. They include sensory perception, activity, mobility, skin moisture, nutritional intake, friction and shear. One is for low level of functioning while four is for high level of functioning or lack of impairment. In total, the scores range from 6-23 where one subscale is scored with values of only 1-3. Each subscale measures the capability of the patient that cause high intensity and duration of pressure, or low tissue tolerance (Braden, 2009). A low Braden score shows that the patient has a low level of functioning; hence, high level of risk of developing a pressure ulcer.
Pressure ulcers are a significant problem in older adults who are hospitalized. For instance, in Canada, America and parts of Europe, prevalence for pressure ulcers ranges from 14% to 25% and frequency from 7% to 9% (Braden, 2009). In addition, about 280,000 hospital ...
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254). The “bony prominence” areas where pressure ulcers usually form are the sacrum, coccyx, hips and heels. Older people have a tendency to develop pressure ulcers because skin constitution changes as one gets older becoming thinner with less collagen and with diminished capability to protect itself from the bacteria and the environment.
One of such health problem is Pressure Ulcer. In conformity to the explanation by the Arkansas State University College of Education (2008), the theoretical framework of most of the sources discussed in this review “establishes a vantage point, a perspective, a set of lenses through which the researcher views the problem.” Generally, the deep tissue injury theory was used by researchers with the view that ulcers occur, starting from areas around the bone till they get to the epidermis – thus beginning from the deepest level.
Braden scale evaluates the level of risk for getting pressure ulcers and those discovered to have or at risk of developing the ulcers are given preventive care. According to Braden (2009), the Braden scale consists of six subscales/areas that can be completed in one minute.
Such measures are particularly important for those who have risk factors that cause blood pressure.Managing blood pressure is one of the most important things that anyone can do to decrease the risk of stroke and heart diseases as most patients of high blood pressure face severe heart problems and heart diseases (Sheps 33).
Effectiveness of Risk Assessment in Preventing Pressure Ulcer. The research question for the study will be: Does increased risk assessment and early detection reduce the prevalence of pressure ulcers in healthcare institutions? The independent variable is risk assessment and detection of ulcers while the independent variable is prevalence of ulcers.
o Polit and Hunger (1999; cited in Melnyk et al, 2000), "research utilization is the use of some portion of research in practice that is similar to the manner in which it was used in the original study.” Research has shown that following certain strategies to prevent and
This begs the question why its nearly impossible to have a sustained pressure ulcer prevention in the geriatric patient. This research topic tends to settle down this question by determining the attitude and knowledge of nurses on geriatric