Breast cancer, one of the most common carcinomas specifically in females occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women but can also occur at an early age depending on various genetic makeup and mutations. As per the Histological study, breast carcinoma is lobular or ductal in…
Treatment plans have modified from time to time with the aim to conserve as much as normal breast tissue and reduce the recurrence rates. Different strategies have evolved ranging from modified radical mastectomy to radiation to hormonal and chemotherapy. Having a varied prognosis depending on the histo pathological appearance as well as the grading, staging and receptor status of the breast carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment yields better results, while late diagnosis and treatment results in widespread disease.
Breast cancer one of the most common and ancient carcinoma in female occurring most commonly in postmenopausal woman and in individuals with BRCA mutation. The screening, diagnosis and treatment are rapidly changing areas with more and more advances in the diagnostic tests and resulting specific therapies depending on the histo-pathological and bio-markers. From diagnosis to treatment it needs a multidisciplinary approach with physicians, radiologists, oncologists, histo-pathologists on board. This article focuses on the etiological factors, genetic mutation, diagnosis, treatment plans and prognostic factors. . Breast cancers being more common in women but can also occur in men and have a poor prognosis as in men there is always delay in diagnosis as opposed to women. Unlike other carcinomas it can be picked up early as it presents with a lump in the breast, for the same reason it has also been documented as an ancient disease as unlike other carcinomas it could become visible and could be picked up as a lump in breast.
If we look at the above risk factors, most of them can be explained by the fact that excessive exposure to sex hormones can lead to breast cancers. Early onset of menses and late menopause, both of these cases leads to over exposure to sex hormones (same can be explained with obesity). One of the studies being carried out concluded that ...
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(Genetics and Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Genetics and Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/616697-genetics-and-breast-cancer.
Although there exists disparities among women from different ethnic, racial and cultural backgrounds, the developments in research of breast cancer offer a promising solution to all affected. It has been reported that in the year 2006 in U.S approximately 274,900 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed with 61,980 of these cases being in situ carcinomas and the rest (212,920) being malignant breast cancers.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
numerous research studies regarding neoadjuvant treatment for persons affected by breast cancer, histological treatment effects in the lymph nodes and primary lesions are considerably associated with the diagnosis. Various diverse histological measures are presently employed to
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
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