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Chemotherapy: High-Risk Complications
Pages 4 (1004 words)
Chemotherapy: High Risk Complications Wesling Ducos Advanced Med-Surg 6-26-12 Chemotherapy: High Risk Complications Introduction In chemotherapy treatment, the drugs used to cure cancer can have a number of high risk complications including adverse reactions and toxicities.
Chemotherapy-related Nephrotoxicity Studies indicate that chemotherapeutic drugs may damage glomerulus, renal tubules, or microvasculature and thereby lead to renal problems. Adverse reactions can be mild or fatal. Some commonly used nephrotoxic antineoplastic agents like Cisplatin may develop proximal and distal tubule damages. The injury level may vary in accordance with the dosage. High dose cisplatin therapy would result in acute tubular necrosis, which is a condition limiting tubules’ sodium, magnesium, and water reabsorption capabilities. This condition in turn may lead to chronic electrolyte abnormalities too. “Even when aggressive pre and posthydration with mannitol induced diuresis are part of the cisplatin regimen, the patient may develop nephrotoxicity” (Held-Warmkessel, 2011) In order to reduce those risks, it is necessary to closely monitor renal activities following the drug administration. Similarly, methotrexate causes damage to renal tubules and collecting ducts and ultimately results in acute tubular necrosis. While giving high dose therapy, drug precipitates out of the solution and is accumulated in tubules ducts; this condition may worsen the injury. Acute kidney injury is more likely to occur at any time during this treatment. ...
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