Brain mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease.

Brain mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease. Essay example
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Brain mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly occurring, neurodegenerative disease. It occurs as a result of degeneration of neurons within the substantia nigra, which is a region of the brain responsible for controlling movements…

Introduction

Primary Parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease are terms used to distinguish PD from other forms of Parkinsonism (Pfeiffer et al 2012, p. 285). Discussion Being a chronic neurodegenerative disease, there are four main motor manifestations that characterize this medical condition. These cardinal signs are tremor at rest, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. It is worth noting that the four cardinal signs of PD may not be present in all patients, but patients show at least two of the cardinal signs. The initial complaint from patients with PD is that of motor weakness; in most cases, there is a misdiagnosis on the cause of this sign. Later during the course of disease progression, signs of tremor and postural deficits may appear, prompting physicians to reconsider the cause of the signs (Pfeiffer et al 2012, p.291). Diagnosis of PD is based on neurological examinations and patient’s medical history, but there is a diagnostic test that can help in the identification of PD. Tremor at rest, being a common sign in about 70% of patients suffering from PD, is not used in PD's diagnostic procedure. This is because there are other neurological conditions that present with signs similar to those of Parkinsonism. However, rigidity helps physicians during the diagnosis of PD since it is associated with resistance in limb movements. ...
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