After the body absorbs what is needed from food for self-repairs and energy, the remainder is waste that is sent to the blood. However, these functions of the kidney are hindered by attacks on nephrons resulting in the loss of their filtering ability. High blood pressure and diabetes are responsible for renal failure, thereby resulting in slow and silent destruction of the nephrons. Kidney failure can be chronic, acute or end stage. In this paper, the discussion focuses on the medical management of chronic renal failure. This discussion defines chronic renal failure, medical tests to detect kidney failure, and management of chronic renal failure. Detection of kidney disease People may exhibit signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure. However, some have no symptoms and the doctor detects kidney condition through regular urine and blood tests. The three key simple tests recommended by the National Kidney Foundation are blood pressure measurement, spot check for albumin or protein in urine, and Glomerular filtration rate or GFR based on serum creatinine measurement (Alters, 2000). Blood pressure measurement involves the use of a dedicated cuff to obtain systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Microalbuminuria condition results from the failure of kidneys to separate albumin from blood protein. Proteinuria is the resultant condition of increased blood protein and albumin. Dipstick color indicates the presence or absence of proteinuria. Kidney biopsy and kidney imaging are also viable ways of detecting kidney failure (SIGN, 2008). Management of Chronic Kidney disease or CKD CKD is kidney failure that occurs over a lengthy duration. This duration could be months or years. However, the major causes of renal failure are diabetes and high blood pressure that are poorly managed and chronic glomerulonephritis. Other causes of CKD that are less pronounced include kidney stones, reflux nephropathy, prostrate disease and polycystic kidney disease. The most unfortunate thing is that there is no cure for CKD. However, in its early stages kidney failure can be managed allowing the patients to live longer. This requires the observation of several steps that must ensure that heart attacks and stroke risks are minimized since such patients are vulnerable. According to Schoolwerth, McClellan and Gehr (2006), Chronic Kidney disease treatment is intended at preventing or slowing additional damage to patient’s kidneys. Proper treatment requires that underlying conditions like diabetes or high blood pressure that cause kidney disease be identified and managed. The management of such diseases prevents situations that cause kidney damage or worsen it (SIGN, 2008). For most patients, classification falls within mild and moderate categories and hospital-based management is not necessary. For most of the patients in these categories, the most significant aspect is controlling the cardiovascular influence on patient’s renal disease. This management is more significant than the risk of developing end stage renal failure. Daugirdas (2011) reveals that this classification guidance is directed according to severity of the damage. The stages of chronic kidney disease are grouped in five categories. The first stage is slight kidney damage characterized by normal or increased filtration and GFR more than 90. The second stage is mild kidney function characterized by 60 to 89 GFR. Stage three
Medical Management of Chronic Renal Failure Lawrence Abah Northern Illinois University Date Introduction Renal failure is also referred to kidney disease or kidney failure. Kidneys in the human body play the role of keeping the body clean and balance all its chemicals…
880). Once kidney function has declined for a long period of time, the entire body is affected, resulting to systemic manifestations of CRF. Among several systemic manifestations is anemia, which could complicate the status of a client with renal disease.
Renal Transplants Transplants Worldwide Renal transplantation started in 1954 when Ronald Herrick donated a kidney to his identical brother, Richard. Joseph Murray was their surgeon was the first to perform successful living kidney transplantation Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
If ion concentrations in the surrounding fluid are high, water from cells will go extracellularly, and the cells will shrink. In contrast, if they are low compared to that within cells, then water will rush intracellularly, leading to cell rupture. In addition, they have less barrier against toxins present in its surroundings, thus making them more susceptible to the adverse effects of harmful substances present in the body.
The two key types of diabetes are Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While type 1 diabetes normally occurs in children and adolescents, thus requiring lifelong insulin injections for management and survival, the type 2 diabetes mostly attacks adults and is often related to obesity, unhealthy eating habits/diets, and inactivity.
The respiratory system serves to facilitate adequate supply of oxygen to the blood and subsequent expulsion of carbon dioxide. This process marks the respiratory cycle that consists of inhalation and exhalation during which gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs.
ey function, progress in several years and usually asymptomatic and is detected only in the later course of the disease (Rolfes, Pinna, & Whitney, 2009, p. 880). Once kidney function has declined for a long period of time, the entire body is affected, resulting to systemic
They filter these wastes and excess fluid in the blood, which are then excreted through urine. Chronic Kidney Disease is the gradual loss of kidney function.
When kidney failure reaches an advanced stage,
It aids the human body in providing effective immune responses against agents that are a threat to the defenses of the body. It produces clotting factors required to prevent excessive internal bleeding and bleeding from the exposed injured sites.
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