Name of student: Topic: Lecturer: Date of Presentation: Traditional Theories There are various theories that explain why individuals engage in criminal behavior. One of the traditional theories is the ‘demonic perspective’ as put forward by Barak, Leighton & Flavin (94)…
The classical criminologists on the other hand, argued that criminal behavior was as a result of rationalism thereby refuting claims of possession by evil spirits (Barak et al. 95). Criminals thus pursue personal interests by committing crimes. Since criminals are rational, committing crime is a free will. According to Barak et al (95), criminals commit crimes to “maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain”. Crimes were punished through legal reforms which are formal and rational in nature. The positivist school of thought argue that criminals are forced to act by factors beyond their control such as; biological, psychological and sociological factors thus refuting rationalism as a driver of criminality (Barak et al. 95). The criminals are seen as portraying abnormal behavior and thus punishment is aimed at correcting the behavior to conform to the norms of society. They are thus given reform treatment and social intervention. The last school of thought emphasizes on inequality as the diver of criminal activities. They thus commit crime to correct the inequalities. Such crimes include activities such as; financial manipulations and robbery. Such conditions are corrected through equitable distribution of resources (96). White-Collar and Organized Crime The traditional theories can be applied to white-collar crimes and organized crimes. ...
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